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International Machaut Society

Machaut Bibliography--Art Overview and Bibliography

Domenic Leo <>

Until the publication of Lawrence Earp’s Guide (Earp 1995), which includes important information for art historians, François Avril’s groundbreaking series of articles represented the sole possibility for an interdisciplinary study of the Machaut images (Avril 1969a–1982g). This has changed dramatically over the past five years. There are two dissertations on the images (Drobinsky 2004, and Leo 2005) and forays into the music-text-image nexus in an upcoming dissertation (Maxwell). The following bibliography, taken in large part from my dissertation, documents the “tools” necessary for art historical studies of the Machaut images and includes some little-known books relating to Machaut’s possible patrons (Jean de Luxembourg; Benesovská 1996, and his daughter, Bonne de Luxembourg, duchess of Normandy (Lermack 1999, and Land 1994). These include entries on iconography which are directly or indirectly related to the miniatures or 14th-century manuscripts in general. The following represent a brief group of the different topics and methodologies used: reception and performance theory (Coleman 2000); “single-author” manuscripts preceding the Machaut images (King Alfonso the Wise, see Snow 1979; Gautier de Coinci, see Rusakoff 2006). There are also studies or manuscripts concerning the same subject matter—single-author manuscripts—but chronologically following the Machaut images: Christine de Pizan (Hindman 1986), and Villon (Regalado 1993). 

NB: Due to the interdisciplinary nature of Machaut research there will be overlaps with Earp’s Guide.

Akehurst, F. R. P. and Judith M. Davis, eds. A Handbook of the Troubadours. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 1995.

Alexander, Jonathan J. G. “Dancing in the Streets.” The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 54 (1996): 147–62.

_____. Medieval Illuminators and Their Methods of Work. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. A synthetic, historical overview of methods of work and transmission—with bibliography and images—which also provides insight into the social arena, where working conditions, guilds and the expectations of the patrons impacted on the lives of the illuminators.

_____. “Labeur et Paresse: Ideological Representations of Medieval Peasant Labor.” Art Bulletin 72/3 (1990): 436–52.

Alexandre, Arnaud. “Les collections royales.” In Pleybert 2001, 216-24.

Andersen, F. G., ed. Medieval Iconography and Narrative A Symposium. Odense: Odense University Press, 1980.

Areford, David S. “The Passion Measured: A Late-Medieval Diagram of the Body of Christ.” In The Broken Body: Passion Devotion in Late-Medieval Culture. Eds. A.A. MacDonald, H.N.B. Ridderbos, and R.M. Schlusemann, 211–38. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1998.

Attwood, Catherine. “The Image in the Fountain: Fortune, Fiction and Femininity in the Livre dou Voir Dit of Guillaume de Machaut.” In Fortune and Women in Medieval Literature: Nottingham French Studies, 38/2 (1999): 137–49.

Avril, François, a. L’Enluminure à l’époque gothique: 1200–1400. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Image, 1995. Lush full-folio, and then full-bleed detail images with excellent clarity of C, fols. 51 and 77. Also includes images with the work of the most important artists who contributed to Machaut manuscripts.

_____b. “Les Manuscrits enluminés de Guillaume de Machaut: Essai de chronologie.” In Guillaume de Machaut 1982, 117–34.

_____c. “Un Moment méconnu de l’enluminure française.” Archéologia 162 (Jan., 1982): 24–31.

_____d. Manuscript entries. Les Fastes du Gothique: le siècle de Charles V. Exhibition catalogue. Paris: Edition de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1981.

_____e. Manuscript Painting at the Court of France: The Fourteenth Century (1310–1380). New York: Braziller, 1978.

_____f. “Un Chef-d’oeuvre de l’enluminure sous le règne de Jean le Bon, la Bible moralisée, manuscrit français 167 de la Bibliothèque Nationale.” In Monuments et Mémoires de la Fondation Eugène Piot, 91–125. Publications de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 58. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1972.

_____g. “Une Bible historiale de Charles V.” Jahrbuch der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen 14–15 (1970): 45–76.

Beaune, Colette. Les Manuscrits des rois de France au Moyen Age. Paris: Bibliothèque de l’Image, 1991.

Benesovská, Klára, ed. King John of Luxembourg (1296–1346) and the Art of His Era. Proceedings of the International Conference, Prague, September 16–20, 1996. Prague: Koniasch Latin Press, 1998. A collection of thirty-seven articles on fine and decorative art, architecture, politics and history. Indispensible as a collection of hard-to-find images and bibliography.

Bent, Margaret and Andrew Wathey, eds. Fauvel Studies: Allegory, Chronicle, Music and Image in Paris, Bibliothèque National de France, MS Français 146. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Blamires, Alcuin, and Gail C. Holian. The Romance of the Rose Illuminated: Manuscripts at the National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002. Provides a useful overview of iconographical studies on the Rose, with a catalogue entry and all miniatures (in color) from a Rose (NLW MS 5016D) illuminated by the Machaut artist in J and K. The artist is discussed briefly on p. 28.

Boehm, Barbara Drake, and Jirí Fajt, eds. Prague: the Crown of Bohemia, 1347-1437. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. Though not directly related to Machaut, includes articles by Jirí Fajt, Zoë Opacic, and others, of interest for arts in Bohemia in the period of Machaut.

Brown, Cynthia J. “Text, Image, and Authorial Self-Consciousness.” In Printing the Written Word. Ed. Sandra Hindman, 103–42. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Brownlee, Kevin. “Authorial Self-Representation and Literary Models in the Roman de Fauvel.” In Bent and Wathey, 1988: 73–104.

Brownlee, Kevin, and Sylvia Huot, eds. Rethinking the ‘Romance of the Rose’: Image, Text, Reception. Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

Buettner, Brigitte. “Machaut’s Remede de Fortune: Some Art Historical Observations.” In Teaching Medieval Lyric with Modern Technology: New Windows on the Medieval Word. Dir. Margaret Switten. CD-ROM, Mount Holyoke College, 2001. CD 1: 1–12. An essay placing the images from Remede in C and Prologue in A, within the context of contemporary art and society with sensitive attention to details of material culture and gender.

_____. “Dressing and Undressing Bodies in Late Medieval Images.” In Künstlerischer Austausch/Artistic Exchange: Akten des XXVIII. Internationalen Kongresses für Kunstgeschichte, Berlin, 15–20. Juli. 1992. Ed. Thomas W. Gaehtgens, 383–92. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1993.

Byrne, Donal. “A Fourteenth-Century French Drawing in Berlin and the Livre du Voir-Dit of Guillaume de Machaut.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 47 (1984): 70–91.

Cahn, Walter. “Medieval Landscape and the Encyclopedic Tradition.” In Poirion and Regalado 1991, 11–24. Important as a study for the image—the so-called “first landscape”—heading Lyon in ms C.

Camille, Michael. “For Our Devotion and Pleasure: The Sexual Objects of Jean, Duc de Berry.” Art History 24/2 (April, 2001): 169–94.

_____. The Medieval Art of Love: Objects and Subjects of Desire. New York: Abrams, 1998. See 27, plate 17 (A, fol. 235v), 28, plate 18 (C, fol. 23), 69, fol. 56 (Berlin Cutting). An essay-type picture book which delves into the relatively unexplored world of medieval secular art—from ivories to embroidered purses—under the theme of love.

_____. Mirror in Parchment: The Luttrell Psalter and the Making of Medieval England. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998.

_____. Master of Death: The Lifeless Art of Pierre Remiet, Illuminator. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996. A study of artist Pierre Remiet, whose style, if not hand, appears in Machaut manuscripts F-G and Bk. As an “anti-catalogue raisonée,” this book draws on Camille’s dissertation and documents Remiet’s formation as an artist under the Master of the Bible of Jean de Sy and boldly explores thematic issues in Remiet’s work.

_____. The Gothic Idol: Ideology and Image-Making in Medieval Art. Cambridge New Art History and Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, 1989. See plate 152 (A, fol. 56v) p. 288 in the chapter, “Statues and Statutes,” Camille discusses the context of representations of the statue of Nebuchadnezzar.

_____. “Gothic Signs and the Surplus: The Kiss on the Cathedral.” In Poirion and Regalado 1991, 151–70.

_____. “The Book of Signs: Writing and Visual Difference in Gothic Manuscript Illumination.” Word and Image 1 (1985): 133–48.

_____. “The Illustrated Manuscripts of Guillaume de Deguileville’s ‘Pèlerinages’, 1330–1420.” Diss. Cambridge University, 1985.

Caviness, Madeline H. Visualizing Women in the Middle Ages: Sight, Spectacle and Scopic Economy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

_____. “Patron or Matron? A Capetian Bride and a Vade Mecum for Her Marriage Bed.” Speculum 68 (1993): 333–400.

_____. “Peinture et actualité politique sous les premiers Valois. Jean le Bon ou Charles, dauphin?” Gazette des Beaux-Arts (September, 1978): 53–65.

_____. “Le Portrait de Jean le Bon au Louvre.” Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de France, 1971 (1973).

Cerquiglini(-Toulet), Jacqueline. “Portraits d’auteurs à la fin du moyen âge: tombeaux en majesté et épitaphes carnavalesques.” Académie des inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Comptes-rendus des séances 2 (2002): 785–96.

_____. La Couleur de la mélancolie: La Fréquentation des livres au XIVe siècle, 1300–1415. Paris: Hatier, 1993.

_____. “Le Clerc et le louche: Sociology of an Esthetic.” Trans. Monique Briand-Walker. Poetics Today 5 (1984): 479–91.

Choi, Kyung-hee. “Illuminating Liturgy and Legend: The Missal of Saint-Denis and the Royal Abbey in the Fourteenth Century.” Diss. New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science, 2004. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 3146638. Choi’s dissertation builds on François Avril’s study of the Remede artist and helps flesh out issues of patronage surrounding this little-studied artist.

Coleman, Joyce. “The Text Recontextualized in Performance: Deschamps’ Prelection of Machaut’s Voir Dit to the Count of Flanders.” Viator 31 (2000): 233–48. Coleman reconstructs the moment when Deschamps read a Machaut text to the Count of Flanders, exploring the ramifications for all parties involved.

_____. Public Reading and the Reading Public in Late Medieval England and France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Coleman works around social, historical, literary and visual contexts to recreate the dynamics of reading—aloud and silently. Her time spent accumulating period images of reading is an untapped resource for art historians. Miniatures in Machaut manuscript F-G (such as the Remede and Alerion frontispieces) fall directly in this category.

Cropp, Glynnis M. “Les Manuscrits du ‘Livre de Boece de Consolacion.’” Revue d’histoire des textes 12–13 (1982–83): 263–52.

Daley, Brian E. “The ‘Closed Garden’ and the ‘Sealed Fountain’: Song of Songs 4:12 in the Late Medieval Iconography of Mary.” In Medieval Gardens, ed. Elisabeth Blair MacDougall, 255–79. Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 9. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection; Trustees of Harvard University.

Delisle, Léopold. Recherches sur la librairie de Charles V. 2 vols. Reprint. Amsterdam: van Heudsen, 1967.

Deuchler, F. “Looking at Bonne of Luxembourg’s Prayerbook.” Bulletin of the Metropoliltan Mueum of Art (February, 1971): 267–68.

Diemer, P. and D. Diemer. “Die Illustrationen der Handschrift.” In Carmina Burana: Text und Übersetzungen, mit den Miniaturen aus der Handschrift. Ed. B. K. Vollmann, 1289–98. Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 1987.

Dijon, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon and Cleveland, The Cleveland Museum of Art. Les Princes des fleurs de lis: l’art à la cour de Bourgogne. Le mécénat de Philippe le Hardi et de Jean sans Peur (1364–1419). Exhibition catalogue. Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 2004.

Drobinsky, Julia, a. “Eros, Hypnos et Thanatos, ou les stratégies de mise à distance de la mort dans la Fontaine Amoureuse de Guillaume de Machaut.” In La mort écrite: rites et réthorique du trépas au Moyen Age. Actes de la journée d’études du groupe Questes (Paris-Sorbonne), 26 avril 2003. Ed. Estelle Doudet, 71–83. Cultures et civilisations médiévales 30. Paris: Presses de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne, 2005.

_____, b. “Recyclage et création dans l’iconographie de Guillaume de Machaut (XIVe-XVe siècles).” In Manuscripts in Transition: Recycling Manuscripts, Texts, and Images. Proceedings of the International Congres Held in Brussels (5-9 November 2002). Ed. Brigitte Dekeyzer and Jan van der Stock, 217–24. Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts 15. Low Countries Series 10. Paris and Dudley, Mass.: Peeters, 2005. Includes images from A, F-G, Pm.

_____, c. “La coiffure féminine entre moyen d’identification et principe axiologique dans l’iconographie de Guillaume de Machaut.” In La chevelure dans la littérature et l’art du Moyen Âge. Actes du 28e colloque du CUER MA, 20, 21 et 22 février 2003. Ed. Chantal Connochie-Bourgne, 111–28. Senifiance 50. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence, 2004.

_____, d. “Peindre, pourtraire, escrire. Le rapport entre le texte et l’image dans les manuscrits enluminés de Guillaume de Machaut (XIVe–XVe s.).” Diss. Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne, 2004. An important contribution to the study of text-image rapport. Drobinsky works in interdisciplinary fashion on all illuminated Machaut manuscripts. Collating the two forms of expression, verbal and iconic, reveals both their convergence and complementarity, but also the gap that opens between them. Either remains governed by conventions and purposes of its own, hindering them to coincide exactly with one another. Abstract in Perspectives médiévales 30 (March 2006): 119–22.

_____, e. “La polyphonie énonciative et lyrique dans le Remède de Fortune de Guillaume de Machaut. Inscription textuelle, rubrication et illustration.” Pris-ma: Bulletin de liaison de l’Equipe de recherche sur la littérature d’imagination du moyen âge 39-40 (2004): 49-64.

_____, f. “Effets de miroir dans La Fontaine Amoureuse de Guillaume de Machaut: texte et iconographie.” In Miroirs et jeux de miroirs dans la littérature médiévale. Ed. Fabienne Pomel, 265–82. Collection “Interférences.” Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2003. Formal composition in Fonteinne miniatures and its rapport with structural composition in the text (A, fols. 163, 163v, 165v, 166, 167, 169; F, fols. 127, 128v, 129, 129v, 131, 131v, 133).

_____, g. “La fenêtre comme mise en scène du regard dans les manuscrits enluminés de Guillaume de Machaut.” In Par la fenestre. Etudes de littérature et de civilisations médiévales. Actes du 27e colloque du CUER MA, 21, 22 et 23 février 2002. Ed. Chantal Connochie-Bourgne, 143–56. Senifiance 49. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence, 2003. Examination of the window topos in images and text primarily from the Confort, but touching on Jugement, Fonteinne and Lyon (A, fols: 22v, 127, 142v, 155v).

Duys, Kathryn A. “Books Shaped by Song: Early Literary Literacy in the Miracles de Nostre Dame of Gautier de Coinci.” Diss. New York University, 1997. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 97117754. This interdisciplinary study of the Miracles de Nostre Dame by Gautier de Coinci explores the role of medieval vernacular song in the textual design of early literary manuscripts. It shows that Gautier was the earliest vernacular poet known to have gathered his own lyric and narrative poetry into a unified collection, as well as how works such as Gautier’s were composed, copied, disseminated, performed, and read.

Einhorn, Jürgen W. Spiritualis Unicornis: Das Einhorn als Bedeutungsträger in Literatur und Kunst des Mittelalters. Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1976.

Faidutti, Bruno. “Images et connaissance de la licorne (Fin du Moyen-Âge–XIXème siècle).” Diss. Université de Paris XII, 1996. (

Fajt, Jirí, ed. Magister Theodoricus: Court Painter to Emperor Charles IV. The Pictorial Decoration of the Shrines at Karlstjn Castle. Exhibition catalogue. Prague, National Gallery. Prague, 1998.

Ferrand, Françoise, a. “Le Mirage de l’image: De l’idole à l’icône intérieure chez Guillaume de Machaut.” In Le Moyen Age dans la modernité, mélanges offerts à Roger Dragonetti. Ed. Jean Scheidegger, Sabine Girardet, and Eric Hicks, 203–20. Nouvelle bibliothèque du Moyen Age 39. Paris: Champion, 1996.

_____, b. “Les portraits de Guillaume de Machaut à l’entrée du Prologue à ses oeuvres, signes iconiques de la nouvelle fonction de l’artiste, en France, à la fin du XIVe siècle.” In Le portrait. Ed. J.-M. Bailbé, 11–20. Rouen: Publication de l’Université de Rouen (1987).

_____, c. “Regards sur le Prologue de Guillaume de Machaut.” In Guillaume de Machaut 1982, 235–239.

Fleming, J.V. The Roman de la Rose: A Study in Allegory and Iconography. 2 vols. Princeton, 1969.

Gagnepain, Bernard. Histoire de la musique au moyen âge, 2. XIIIe–XIV siècle. Paris: Seuil, 1996. The section devoted to Machaut, 111–59, has high quality color images: 111 (A: fol. D), 114–15 (A: fol. E), 119 (C: fol. 26), 120–121 (D: fol. 79), 126 (F: fol. 72), 130–31 (C: fol. 51), 138–39 (F: fol. 9v), 145 (C: fol. 187), 157 (C: fol. 165v).

Gallo, Francesco Alberto. Trascrizione di Machaut: ‘Remede de Fortune’—‘Ecu bleu’—‘Remede d’amour.’ Ravenna: Longo, 1999.

_____. Music in the Castle: Troubadours, Books and Orators in Italian Courts of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Trans. Anna Herklotz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Gallo’s interdisciplinary study situates, albeit in passing, discusses Machaut’s work within the collection of Giangaleazzo Visconti (3, 54, 55). The images are of particular use in connection to Robert Scheller’s work and Machaut iconography and artistic hands in A, F-G and E.

Gathercole, P. M. “Illuminations on French Manuscripts of Cicero, Seneca and Aristotle.” Romance Notes 7 (1965): 183–89.

Gombrich, Ernst H. “The Renaissance Theory of Art and the Rise of Landscape.” In Ernst H. Gombrich, 107–21. Norm and Form: Studies in the Art of the Renaissance. London: Phaidon Press, 1966.

Groag, Susan Bell. “Medieval Women Book Owners: Arbiters of Lay Piety and Ambassadors of Culture.” Signs 7/4 (Summer, 1982): 742–68.

Guillaume de Machaut. Guillaume de Machaut: Poète et compositeur. Colloque-table ronde organisé par l’Université de Reims (19–22 avril 1978). Actes et Colloques 23. Paris: Klincksieck, 1982.

Guillaume de Machaut. Le Livre dou Voir Dit (The Book of the True Poem). Ed. Daniel Leech-Wilkinson. Trans. R. Barton Palmer. Garland Library of Medieval Literature. New York and London: Garland, 1998.

Hedeman, Anne D. The Royal Image: Illustrations of the Grandes Chroniques de France, 1274–1422. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. Text-image and ideological study of the Grandes Chroniques manuscripts, featuring a catalogue with detailed information on content and artists. This landmark study provides access to images by key artists from Machaut manuscripts, and a backdrop to place Machaut manuscripts in historical perspective vis-à-vis royal commissions.

Hindman, Sandra L. Christine de Pizan’s ‘Epistre Othéa’: Painting and Politics at Court of Charles VI. Toronoto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1986.

Homolka, Jaromír. “Painters and Workshops Involved in the Pictorial Decoration of the Chapel of the Holy Cross Besides Master Theodoric.” In Fajt 1998, 278–95.

_____. “The Pictorial Decoration of the Palace and Lesser Tower of Karlstjen Castle.” In Fajt 1998, 45–106.

Holsinger, Bruce W. Music, Body and Desire in Medieval Culture: Hildegard of Bingen to Chaucer. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Huot, Sylvia J. “Visualization and Memory: The Illustration of Troubadour Lyric in a 13th-Century Manuscript.” Gesta 31/1 (1992): 3–14.

_____. From Song to Book: The Poetics of Writing in Old French Lyric and Lyrical Narrative Poetry. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1987. Another integral tool for inter-disciplinarian, text-image rapports.

Joubert, Fabienne. “Les arts de la couleur.” In Pleybert 2001, 166-85.

Karlowska-Kamzowa, Alicja. “Hof und Volk in Bildern des Schachzabelbuches Jacobus de Cessolis.” In Benesková, 1998: 93–99.

Kirsch, Frank. “Mécenat littéraire à la maison de Luxembourg, l’exemple de Guillaume de Machaut et de Jean Froissart.” In Luxembourg en Lotharingie, Mélanges Paul Marguerite. Luxembourg: Saint Paul, 1993.

Kreis, Dione Flühler. “Geistliche und weltiche Schreibstuben.” In Die Manessische Liederhandshcrift in Zürich. Exhibition catalogue. Ed. Claudia Brinker and Dione Flühler Kreis, 41–50. Zurich: Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, 1991.

Kuhn, A. “Die Illustrationen des Rosenromans.” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses 31 (1913): 1–166.

Kurose, Tamotsu. Miniatures of the Goddess Fortune in Medieval Manuscripts. Tokyo: Sanseido, 1977. Plates 139, 148.

Land, William G. The Prayer Book of Bonne of Luxembourg: A Personal Document. M.A. Thesis. Washington, D.C., 1984. This bound typescript contains a wealth of information gleaned from archival sources on the little-known Bonne de Luxembourg. It should become the starting point for future study of the life of Bonne, potentially one of Machaut’s most important patronesses.

Lehoux, Françoise. Jean de France, duc de Berri, sa vie, son action politique. 4 vols. Paris: Picard, 1966–68.

Leo, Domenic, a. “The Beginning is the End: Machaut’s Illuminated Prologue.” In Citation, Intertextuality and Memory in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Ed. Yolanda Plumley and Stefano Jossa. Exeter: Exeter University Press, forthcoming in 2009. This will be an in-depth study of the two Prologue miniatures from MS A, encompassing function, reception, iconography and text-image rapports.

 _____, b. “Authorial Presence in the Illuminated Machaut Manuscripts.” Diss. New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science, 2005. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 3170849. Abstract: Shows authorial presence by using the miniatures in illuminated Machaut manuscripts. Re-assessing filiations between the sixteen extant illuminated manuscripts from an art historian’s viewpoint reveals a group of five related manuscripts created during, and shortly after Machaut’s lifetime. This group constitutes a central source where Machaut’s input could overlap with artistic production. Through his illuminated manuscripts, he casts himself as poet, composer and, seemingly, painter. The ‘author portrait’ miniatures in Machaut’s final work, the Prologue, sum up his lifetime achievements.

_____, c. “The Program of Miniatures in Manuscript A.” In Guillaume de Machaut, Le Livre dou Voir Dit: xci–xciii. Sketches evidence that Machaut himself painted/oversaw the miniatures for manuscript A and explores the imagery of Fortuna and the beloved’s portrait image.

Lermack, Annette Ingebretson. “Fit for a Queen: The Psalter of Bonne of Luxembourg at the Cloisters.” Diss. University of Iowa, 1999. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 9933390.

Lindquist, Sherry C. M. and Stephen Perkinson, eds. Artistic Identity in the Late Middle Ages. Gesta, Special Edition, 41 (2002).

Lord, Carla. Royal French Patronage of Art in the Fourteenth Century: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985.

Lowden, John. The Making of the Bibles Moralisées: I, The Manuscripts. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000. Summarizes Avril’s work, 234, but in a broader context including codicology; images by the Remede artist and his assistant (plate 100, 235; plate XXIV) and the artist of P (plate 104, 241). For a thorough examination of the structure and a concise presentation of all artists working in this manuscript, see chapter seven, 221–50.

Maekawa, Kumiko. “La Présentation des Oeuvres de Guillaume de Machaut.” In Mémoires de la Société d’agriculture, commerce, sciences et arts de la Marne (1988): 139–54.

_____. “Recherches iconographiques sur les manuscrits des poésies de Guillaume de Machaut: Les Décorations des premiers ‘recueils personnels.’” Diss. Sorbonne, 1985.

Martin, Henry. La Miniature française du XIIIe au XVe siècle. Paris, 1923.

Maxwell, Kate. “Guillaume de Machaut and the mise en page of Medieval French Sung Verse.” Dissertation University of Glasgow (in progress). This thesis explores the visual impact of the music in the six principal “complete-works” Machaut manuscripts using a methodology which considers each manuscript as a “performance” in its own right, a performance in which three principal categories of “performers” take part: the author-performer, the scribal-performers, and the reader-performers. This analysis offers conclusions as to the role of artists in the society of mid- and late-fourteenth-century France, the changing perceptions of words and music, and the role of reading, writing, and memory in composition and manuscript production.

McMunn, Meradith T. The Illuminated Manuscripts of the “Roman de la Rose.” Brepols/Harvey Miller, forthcoming. The work of years of traveling and amassing detailed information and images will culminate in McMunn’s study and catalogue of Rose manuscripts. It will include manuscripts painted by artists involved in the creation of Machaut manuscripts, and inevitably help with firmer dating and may point to patrons for some of the ‘minor’ illuminated Machaut manuscripts.

Meneghetti, Maria L. “Narrazione e interpretazione nell’iconograhia dei trovatori.” In Il pubblico dei trovatori. Ricenzione e riuso dei testi lirici cortesi fino al XIV secolo. Studi, testi e manuali / Istituto di filologia romanza dell’Università di Roma 11. Modena: Mucchi, 1984, 323–62.

Moleta, Vincent. “The Illuminated ‘Cansoniere’ ms. Banco Rari 217.” La Bibliofilia 78 (1976): 1–36.

Mühlethaler, Jean-Claude. Fauvel au pouvoir: Lire la satire médiévale. Paris: Honoré Champion, 1994.

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art and Prague. Prague, the Crown of Bohemia (1347–1437). Bohemian art during the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, and of his two sons, Wenceslas IV and Sigismund.

Nichols, Stephen G. “Ekphrasis, Iconoclasm, and Desire.” In Rethinking the Romance of the Rose: Text, Image, Reception. Ed. Kevin Brownlee and Sylvia Huot, 133–66. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

Notz, M.-F. “Hortus conclusus: Réflexions sur le rôle symbolique de la clôture dans la description romanesque du jardin.” In Mélanges de littérature, du Moyen Âge au XXe siècle, offerts à Mlle. Jeanne Lods. Paris, 1978: 459–72.

Nishimura, Margot M. “The Gorleston Psalter: A Study of the Marginal in the Visual Culture of Fourteenth-Century England.” Diss. New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 1999. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 9917067.

O’Meara, Carra Ferguson. Monarchy and Consent: The Coronation Book of Charles V, British Library MS Cotton Tiberius B. VIII. London: Harvey Miller, 2001. 207, plate 72 (C: fol. 59). In her extensive study of the Coronation Book and its painter, Ferguson, 148–50, speculates that Machaut participated in compiling the Ordo of Charles V; and in her detailed examination of the miniatures, wonders if the figure of a canon holding a book, plate 44, represents Machaut. François Avril’s studies aside, this is the most in-depth work on a single painter from the Machaut manuscripts to date. It merits attention for a reconstruction of the artist’s career and the socio-political backdrop against which he worked. Ferguson’s work is slightly biased in favor of the Coronation Master’s genius, though, and this artist can neither be credited as the first nor the sole French painter to use “portraiture” or perspectival innovations at this time.

Opacic, Zoë. “Charles IV and the Emmaus Monastery: Slavonic Tradition and Imperial Ideology in Fourteenth-century Prague.” Diss. Univerisity of London, Courtauld Institute of Art, 2002. Abstract (edited): This dissertation examines the unusual instance of the revival of Slavonic liturgy in fourteenth-century Bohemia. The foundation of the Emmaus monastery—then known as Slavonic—in Prague, in 1348, marked a symbolic return of the extinct vernacular liturgy to Bohemia, under the auspices of its new ruler Charles IV of Luxembourg (1347-1378), and by a special papal licence. One aim of this thesis is to reconstruct and date the sequence of the monastery’s construction and to recreate the original appearance of its heavily-damaged hall church. The stylistic analysis of the architecture is followed by the assessment of the Emmaus monastery’s superb biblical cycle of wall paintings against the complex background of contemporary art, finding important parallels not only in Bohemia but also in Italy, France, Germany and Flanders. Throughout the dissertation the aim is to place the Emmaus monastery and its art in the broader ideological contexts of Charles IV’s reign and the spiritual values embodied in the New Town.

Pächt, Otto. “Early Italian Nature Studies and the Early Italian Landscape.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 13 (1950): 13–47.

Paden, William D. “Manuscripts.” In Akehurst and Davis 1995, 307–33.

Panofsky, Erwin. Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France. L’Enfance au Moyen Âge. Exhibition catalogue. Ed. Pierre Riché and Danièle Alexandre-Bidon. Paris: Le Seuil and Bibliothèque Nationale, 1994.

_____. La Librairie de Charles V. Exhibition catalogue. Ed. François Avril and Jean Lafaurie. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1968.

Paris, Musée de la Musique. Moyen Âge: entre ordre et désordre. Exhibition catalogue. Paris: Cité de la musique and Réunion des musées nationaux, 2004.

Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. L’Art au temps des rois maudits: Philippe le Bet et ses fils, 1285–1328. Exhibition catalogue. Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1998.

_____. Les Fastes du gothique, le siècle de Charles V. Exhibition catalogue. Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1981.

Paris 1400. Les arts sous Charles VI. Paris, musée du Louvre 22 mars–12 juillet 2004. Exhibition catalogue. Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux / Fayard, 2004.

Pearsall, Derek and Elizabeth Salter. Landscapes and Seasons of the Medieval World. London: Elek, 1973.

Perkinson, Stephen G. “Villard de Honnecourt, ‘Portraiture,’ and the ‘Counterfeit al vif.’” In Manuscripts, Images and Publics: Creating and Consuming Medieval Pictures. Ed. David Sheridan Areford and Nina A. Rowe. London: Ashgate, forthcoming.

_____. “Engin and artifice: Describing Creative Agency at the Court of France, ca. 1400.” In Lindquist and Perkinson 2002, 51–67.

_____. “Portraire, Contrefaire, and Engin: The Prehistory of Portraiture in Late Medieval France.” Diss. Northwestern University, 1998. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 3100180. Important for further investigation of the Prologue images and Toutebelle’s ‘portrait’ in A.

Pleybert, Frédéric, ed. Paris et Charles V: arts et architecture. Collection Paris et son patrimoine. Paris: Action artistique de la ville de Paris, 2001.

_____. “Art, foi et philosophie.” In Pleybert 2001, 59-67.

_____. “Art, pouvoir et politique.” In Pleybert 2001, 49-58.

_____. “Les sculpteurs du roi.” In Pleybert 2001, 186-215.

Poirion, Daniel and Nancy Freeman Regalado, eds. Yale French Studies, Special Edition. Contexts: Style and Values in Medieval Art and Literature (1991).

Prague, National Gallery. Magister Theodoricus: Court Painter to Emperor Charles IV. The Pictorial Decoration of the Shrines at Karlstijn Castle. Ed. Jirí Fajt. Exhibition catalogue. Prague, 1998. Essays (in English) with color plates touching on art, architectural, social and political history surrounding the castle and its frescoes. Many of the scholars elaborate on the Master of the Luxembourg Genealogy’s stylistic similarities to the Master of the Bible of Jean de Sy.

Rabel, Claudia. “L’Illustration de l’Ovide Moralisé dans les manuscrits français du XIVe siècle: Essai pour une étude iconographique.” Mémoire de Maîtrise. Université de Paris IV, 1981.

Randall, Lilian M. C. Images in the Margins of Gothic Manuscripts, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966.

Regalado, Nancy Freeman. “Le Porcher au palais: Kalila et Dimna, Le Roman de Fauvel, Machaut et Boccace.” Études Littéraires 31/2 (Winter, 1999): 119–32.

_____. “Gathering the Works: The ‘Oeuvres de Villon’ and the Intergeneric Passage of the Medieval French Lyric into Single-Author Collections.” L’Esprit Créateur 33/4 (Winter, 1993): 87–100.

Riche, Samantha J. E. “St. George as a Male Virgin Martyr.” In Gender and Holiness: Men, Women and Saints in Late Medieval Europe. Ed. Samantha J. E. Riche and Sarah Silah, 65–85. New York: Routledge 2002.

Rieger, Angelica. “Ins el cor port, dona vostra faisso. Image et imaginaire de la femme à travers l’enluminure dans les chansonniers des troubadours.” Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 28 (1985): 385–415.

Ringbom, Sixten. “Some Pictorial Conventions for the Recounting of Thoughts and Experiences in Late Medieval Art.” In Andersen 1980, 38–69.

_____. “Devotional Images and Imaginative Devotions.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6, 73 (1969): 159–70.

_____. “Maria in sole and the Virgin of the Rosary.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 25 (1962): 326–30.

Roncaglia, Aurelio. “La statua d’Isotta.” Cultura Neolatina, anno XXXI, dedicato a Jean Frappier (1971): 41–67.

Rosario, Iva. Art and Propaganda: Charles IV of Bohemia, 1346–1378. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2000. Rosario, in this publication from her dissertation, concentrates on portrait images of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV in Karlstjen Castle, where the Dauphin Charles V also figures prominently. Machaut is mentioned briefly in the context of John of Bohemia’s patronage of the arts, 8.

Rouse, Richard H and Mary A. Rouse. Manuscripts and Their Makers: Commercial Book Production in Medieval Paris 1200–1500. 2 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 2000. The Rouses provide an overview of manuscript production in Paris. With respect to Machaut it expands knowledge of the artistic atmosphere in which C, J, K, Vg and A were created; specifically they provide more manuscript checklists of period artists such as the Master of Thomas de Maubeuge and Richard and Jeanne Montbaston. See especially vol. 1, chap. 10, 261–83: ‘Les écriviains du roi: Booktrade Professionals in the Service of Charles V’; and vol. 2: Appendices to Chapter 10, 208–11.

Russakoff, Anna D. “Imaging the Miraculous: Les Miracles de Notre Dame, Paris, BnF, n. acq. fr. 24541.” Diss. New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science, 2003. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 3205677. Abstract: The deluxe 14th-century Miracles of the Virgin manuscript, Paris, BnF, n. acq. fr. 24541, containing poetry, songs, and prayers by the Benedictine monk Gautier de Coinci (c. 1177–1236), is justifiably the most famous copy of this text. It also analyzes the relationship between the whole sequence of images and the text in comparison to the other illustrated Gautier de Coinci manuscripts, which are rarely discussed or reproduced in art-historical literature. The methodology combines stylistic, iconographic, and codicological examinations with image-text analysis and audience reception. This section argues that it was more likely to have been produced for the entire royal family or court for multiple purposes and occasions.

_____. “The Role of the Image in an Illustrated Manuscript of Les Miracles de Notre-Dame by Gautier de Coinci: Besançon, Bibliothèque municipale 551.” Manuscripta 47/48 (2003/2004): 135–44.

Rushing, J. A., Jr. “The Adventures of the Lion Knight: Story and Picture in the Princeton Yvain.” Princeton University Library Chronicle 53 (1991): 31–49.

Salter, Elizabeth and Derek Pearsall. “Pictorial Illustration of Late Medieval Poetic Texts: The Role of the Frontispiece or Prefatory Picture.” In Andersen 1980, 100–23.

Sandler, Lucy Freeman. A Fourteenth-century Encyclopedia of Universal Knowledge: British Library MSS Royal 6 E VI–6 E VII. 2 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1994.

_____. Gothic Manuscripts 1285–1385, 2 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1986.

_____. “Jean Pucelle and the Lost Miniatures of the Belleville Breviary.” Art Bulletin 66/1 (1984): 73–96.

Scheidegger, Jean R. “Son image peinte sur les parois de mon cœur.” In Le Moyen Age dans la modernité, mélanges offerts à Roger Dragonetti. Paris: Champion, 1996, 395–409.

Scheller, Robert W. Exemplum: Model-book Drawings and the Practice of Artistic Transmission in the Middle Ages (ca. 900–ca. 1450). Trans. Michael Hoyle. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1995. See 223, plate 111 (Berlin Cutting); 289, plate 165 (E, fol. 16). Hoyle’s text is terse, but packed with information. In touching on Machaut illumination, he stimulates a study of the iconographic ties connecting French and Italian works.

Schiendorfer, Max. “Die Lieder: Vortragsform und Tradierung.” In Die Manessische Liederhandshcrift in Zürich. Exhibition catalogue. Ed. Claudia Brinker and Dione Flühler Kreis, 59–63. Zurich: Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, 1991.

Schmidt, G. “Review of C. R. Sherman, The Portraits of Charles V.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte (1971): 47–63.

Sears, Elizabeth. The Ages of Man: Medieval Interpretations of the Life Cycle. Princeton: Princeton University, 1986.

Shahar, Shulamith. Childhood in the Middle Ages. Trans. C. Galai. London and New York: Routledge, 1990.

Sheingorn, Pamela. “The Wise Mothers: The Image of St. Anne Teaching the Virgin Mary.” Gesta 32 (1993): 69–80.

Sherman, Claire Richter. Imaging Aristotle: Verbal and Visual Representation in Fourteenth-Century France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. See 208, plate 59 (A, fol. E); 250, plate 73 (C, Lyon).

_____. The Portraits of Charles V of France (1338–1380). New York: New York University Press, 1969.

Smith, Nathaniel. “In Search of the Ideal Landscape: From ‘Locus Amoenus’ to ‘Parc du Champ Joli’ in the Roman de la Rose.” Viator 11 (1980): 238–43.

Smith, Sharon O. D. “Illustrations of Raoul de Praelles’ Translation of St. Augustine’s ‘City of God’ Between 1375 and 1420.” Diss. New York University, Graduate School, 1974. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 7509703.

Snow, Joseph T. “The Central Rôle of the Troubadour Persona of Alfonso X in the Cantigas de Santa Maria.” Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 56 (1979): 305–16.

Stechow, Wolfgang. “Shooting at the Father’s Corpse.” Art Bulletin 24 (1942): 213–25.

Sterling, Charles. La Peinture médiévale à Paris: 1300–1500. Vol.1. Paris: Bibliothèque des Arts (Fondation Wildenstein), 1990.

Stones, M. Alison. “The Illustrations to Brunetto Latini’s Trésor in France, c. 1275–1320.” In La città e il libro II, Il manoscritto, la miniatura. Ed. J. Bolton-Holloway. Florence, forthcoming.

_____. “Secular Manuscript Illumination in France.” In Medieval Manuscripts and Textual Criticism. Ed. C. Kleinhenz, 83–102. Chapel Hill, 1976. A seminal figure in the study of secular manuscript illumination, Stones’ contributions in the areas of connoisseurship and iconography serve as both model and reference for Machaut studies. Key here is Stones’ commitment to analyze the totality of specific literary works: their evolution over time; the artistic personalities; and their reception.

Taylor, Jane H. M. “Le Roman de Fauvain: Manuscript, Text, Image.” In Bent and Wathey 1998, 569–90.

Tesnière, Marie-Helene. “La librairie modele.” In Pleybert 2001, 225-33.

Thomas, Marcel. “French Illumination in the Time of Guillaume de Machaut.” In Cosman and Chandler 1978, 145–65. This survey is now outdated.

Van Buren, Ann H. “Reality and Literary Romance in the Park of Hesdin.” In Medieval Gardens, ed. Elisabeth Blair MacDougall, 117–34. Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 9. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection; Trustees of Harvard University.

Vollmann, B. K., ed. Carmina Burana: Text und Übersetzungen, mit den Miniaturen aus der Handschrift. Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 1987.

Voronova, Tamara and Andéï Sterligov. Manuscrits enluminés occidentaux: VIIIe–XVIe siècles. Bournemouth and St. Petersburg: Parkstone Aurora, 1996. Phenomenal color plates of illumination by Machaut artists.

Walters, Lori. “Appendix: Author Portraits and Textual Demarcation in Manuscripts of the Romance of the Rose.” In Brownlee and Huot 1992, 359–74.

_____. “Illuminating the Rose.” In Brownlee and Huot 1992, 167–95.

_____. “Paris, BN, fr.1433: The Creation of a ‘Super Romance.’” The Arthurian Yearbook 1 (1991): 3–25.

Walther, Ingo F. and Norbert Wolf. Codices illustres: The World’s Most Famous Illuminated Manuscripts, 400–1600. Cologne: Taschen, 2001. Brief entry on C (fols. 51, 103), 220–21.

Walworth, Julia. “Earthly Delights: the Pictorial Images of the Carmina Burana Manuscript.” In The Carmina Burana: Four Essays. Ed. Martin H. Jones. London: King’s College London, Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies, 2000.

Waugh, Christina Marie Frieder. “Style-Consciousness in Fourteenth-Century Society, and Visual Communication in the Moralized Bible of John the Good.” Diss. University of Michigan, 2000. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT 9991008. This is a massive undertaking, and incorporates statistical analysis into a study of fashion styles as signifiers in mid fourteenth-century art. A key artist here is the Remede Master, whose use of a creative fashion vocabulary in manuscript C places him at the center of studies for the history of fashion.

Washington, D.C., Library of Congress. Creating French Culture: Treasures from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. Exhibition catalogue. New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1995 (in association with the Library of Congress, Washington and the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris). MS C is cat. 24, 76–77, fols. 56v–57 (entry by François Avril).

Wieck, Roger. Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Manuscripts, 1350–1525. Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton Library, 1983. Important descriptions, with bibliography, of manuscripts by the Master of the Coronation of Charles VI and the Jean de Sy Master, as well as the ateliers that worked on Vg. See catalogue entries 1 and 2.

Wilson-Ruffo, Kathleen. “The Illustration of Notated Compendia of Courtly Poetry in Late 13th-century Northern France.” Diss. University of Toronto, 2000. Ann Arbor: UMI, AAT NQ69277. An important study of possible sources of iconography for the narrator of Machaut’s dits. Includes images from C: 166–67.

Wimsatt, James I., and William W. Kibler, eds. and trans.; music ed. Rebecca A. Baltzer. Le Jugement du Roy de Behaigne and Remede de Fortune. The Chaucer Library. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

Wixom, William D. “A Missal for a King: A First Exhibition. An Introduction to the Gotha Missal and a Catalogue to the Exhibition Gothic Art 1360–1440 Held at the Cleveland Museum of Art, 1963.” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 50 (1963): 158–73.

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