Dr. Bernard Cook
Study Guide for Greaves
chapter 21

The first European country to establish itself in Africa:

Those in Africa who held land used it to hunt, fish, farm, or graze herds, not to speculate in the hope of amassing profits by purchasing and reselling property. Black Africans produced to:

The religion of Ethiopia was:

Its variety was called:

In what Central African state did Christianity make significant inroads:

What was the impact of the development of the preditory economy upon North Africa?

What group introduced a significan change into African slavery?

The principal peoples of present day Nigeria:

The language and culture which came to dominate the East Coast of Africa from Mogadishu to Kilwa:

Discuss African slavery.

Discuss the Transatlantic slave trade.

Discuss the impact of the slave trade on Africa

Chapter 22

Mandate of Heaven

Role of Eunuchs in Chinese Empire

Cheng Ho's Vovages:

Why was there no follow up?

"Middle Kingdom" (significance):

Basic Confucian message:

Describe the decline of the late Ming Empire:
Chapter 23

In all of Asia the overriding motivation for having children, especially, males was:

Contrast the family in Asia and Europe:

What is meant when Asian societies are called self-regulating?

What was the social function of the caste in India?

What were some similarities between different societies in the early modern world?

What was the chief cause of low life expectancy in Europe as late as 1700?

How was labor regarded in the East and West?

Be able to discuss:
The Agrarian Revolution
Enclosure Movement
Population Expansion
 a) Causes
 b) Consequences
The transition from Traditional Societies

Chapter 24

Identify Colbert:

Who was the architect of the modern Russian state?

Of which state is it said that "not since ancient Sparta had a society lived so completely by the military ideal?"  Its ruler from 1640 to 1688, Frederick William, "found the key to state-building in the maintenance of a standing army . . . The army was both his excuse for raising taxes and his means of compelling payment."

Who became the king of England as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?

Of which state is it said that "The chief unifying factor in this strange entity, whose ruler lacked a single title and whose lands lacked a common name, was the person of the monarch himself.  His government was actually a series of ongoing negotiations with the provinces of his realm...."?

Who was the absolute ruler par excellence, the rule of the most powerful European state in the late 1600s?

Be able to identify or answer:
The Glorious Revolution
The objectives of Peter the Great
The Character of the Prussian State
Frederick William II
Frederick the Great
Louis XIV

Chapter 25

Polish astronomer and mathematician who asserted that the earth and the planets rotated around the sun:

This doctrine viewed the material world as an emanation of divine spirit.  All objects were related to each other by sympathy or antipathy through the energies of this spirit, which could be released or manipulated by those who knew how to pair the right objects.  Humans the highest compound of matter and spirit, were destined to command the forces of the natural world by learning to read the book of nature and decipher its hidden codes:

Pisan mathematician whose espousal of the heliocentric theory and his own celestial discoveries were decisive in gaining acceptance for the new astronomy:

His famous statement--"I think, therefore I am"--was the starting point of his extraordinary attempt to reconstruct all knowledge from the ground up on the basis of simple, self-evident, principles:

He condemned rebellion as the greatest of political evils.  But he accepted all changes of government in a spirit of pure pragmatism.    The only test of a regime was its ability to provide security:

This Englishman's work was a synthesis of all the elements of the scientific tradition.  His solution to the problem of gravity was the key to his system:

The colonnaded square of St. Peter's basilica in Rome is the masterpiece of the greatest architect and sculptor of the baroque:

He argued that the mind at birth was a tabula rasa or blank slate:

Chapter 26

What lured the Europeans to the Americas in the sixteenth century?

The sharp rise in profits and prices enriched the merchant bourgeoisie, whose new political importance was clearly manifested in which countries:



In the west the growth of which large institution or organization was linked to the growth of the economy?

For France and Great Britain, which area of the New World was most profitable?

Of all British and French colonial products, which was, by far, the most important?

The economic theory which sought to enhance the wealth of the mother country by acquiring a captive source of supply for its commodity needs and a compulsory outlet for its manufactures?

Of the 3 million black men, women, and children transported to the Caribbean during the eighteenth century, most died.  The primary cause of this was:

The significance of the Triangular Trade for the European (British) economy:

The chief slave port of Europe:

What change in the size of land holdings occurred in England, largely after the Restoration of 1660 and continued for the next 150 years or so?  The process of enclosure spurred this development.


What was the impact upon in the eastern Europe of the demand for foodstuffs and raw materials to stoke the expanding Atlantic economies?



From the sixteenth century on, the European economy had become significantly entwined for the first time with that of a region thousands of miles away that provided it with the means of capital expansion, first through the importation of bullion from Spanish America and later primarily through the trade in sugar and slaves.  The importance of this new global economy was great.  So, too, was its human cost.  Elaborate:

The first prime minister of Britain in fact if not in name:

______________________.  His support in Parliament was based upon:

As a result of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Britain decisively defeated this country:___________________
As a result of the  Seven Years' War Britain gained Canada and was victorious in India.  India's wealth provided much of the capital for the monumental expansion of production which occurred in Britain during the next generation,  This economic expansion is called the:

The cause of the 13 North American colonies' rebellion was:

The cost of France's support of the 13 colonies was:

The fear of the elites that continued popular pressure on weak state governments for political and economic reform would lead to anarchy prompted the convening of a convention in Philadelphia in 1787.  This convention did what?

In the 1830s Alexis de Tocqueville wrote:  "While all the nations of Europe have been ravaged by civil strife, the American people alone in the civilized world world remained pacific.  Almost the whole of Europe has been convulsed by revolutions; America has not even suffered riots."   Would he have made the same statement forty years later?  Why or why not?

The  leader of the second successful colonial rebellion in the Americas and the first great black revolutionary of modern times:

He liberated Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru from Spanish control:

The factor which tipped the balance in favor of the Latin American rebels against Spain, was the support of this country which sought to break up Spain's commercial monopolies for good.  It threw up a virtual blockade against the feeble Spanish navy:

Be prepared to write essays on:

Triangular Trade
The Agricultural Revolution
The Population Explosion
The condition of the peasanty in Eastern Europe

Be able to identify:

Adam Smith
Congress of Vienna
Triangular Trade

Chapter 27

The four individuals who provided the foundation for the Enlightenment:
1) Newton
2) Bacon
3) Descartes
4) Locke
What was the contribution of each?
Locke's Epistemology

Discuss the Enlightenment outlook

The most important publishing project of the Enlightenment, edited by Diderot:

The "enlightened" despot of Russia, whose enlightenment cooled in the face of Pugachev's rebellion:

The more enlightened monarch of Prussia, who was the most admired monarch of the eighteenth century:

The ruler of Austria who seriously embraced the principles of the Enlightenment and unreservedly attempted to put them into effect:

The most influential of the French philosophes, author of Candide:

He depicted the state of nature as an idyllic primitive communism, corrupted by the sin of possession.  The original transgression created the basic institution of society, property.  This in turn led to greed, the source of all oppression:

He argued in The Spirit of the Laws that liberty was best secured by a separation of the powers of government:

For this thinker humans were innately peaceful, rational, and gregarious in the state of nature, enjoying their natural rights to life, liberty, and the fruit of their own labors.  They entered society not from fear but from the desire to increase their wealth and happiness by cooperation with their fellows.  The social contract thus involved not a surrender of natural rights but the protection and enhancement of them.  Society itself was  the voluntary association of free, equal, and separate individuals as free, equal, and united members of a group.  The right of rebellion was implicit in the formation of society itself.  Far from dissolving the social order, rebellion was a means of renewing and reaffirming the ends for which it had been instituted.  This thinker was:

The dramatic style of the baroque gave way in the eighteenth century to the smaller-scaled, more refined, elaborately decorated:
Of all the forms of art in eighteenth century Europe, the only one which produced names to rank with the greatest figures of the seventeenth century was:

Mary Wollstonecraft was a pioneer________________________.

Be able to identify:
Adam Smith
John Locke

Chapter 28

The French Revolution began as an uprising by which segment of French society?

What sort of crisis led to the constitutional crisis in France?

When the text states: "As it happened, the worst political crisis in the nation's [France's] history coincided with the worst subsistence crisis of the eighteenth century," what does it mean?

What was the decisive step toward revolution taken by the Third Estate after weeks of deadlock?

This event in Paris gave the revolution its baptism of blood and resulted in the final collapse of the king's authority:

What happened in the French countryside at this time [July 1789]?

Identify: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen:

The name given to the revolutionary working people of the towns of France, especially Paris, because the men wore trousers and not the knee pants of the fashionable bourgeoisie:

The political club and embryonic political party, whose radical faction, the Montagnards, led by Maximilien Robespierre joined the people to oust Louis XVI from the throne in August 1792:

The leader of the Convention and the Committee of Public Safety, the main architect of the Terror [a systematic attempt to root out and destroy all enemies of the revolution], who stated that "to the enemies of the people it [revolutionary government] owes only death."   He was overthrown and beheaded at the beginning of the Thermidorian Reaction.

The woman, supporter of the Revolution and the Girondists, who most influenced the course of the French revolution but perished during the Terror:

The name of the conservative bourgeois regime which emerged from the Thermidorian Reaction:

This government was overthrown by a coup in 1799.  The conspirators wished to strengthen the government by bringing to the fore the most prominent French military leader.  For the next fifteen years he governed France as first consul, consul for life, and then emperor:

This digest of French legal and administrative principles became the most influential compilation of secular law outside the Anglo-Saxon tradition.  It confirmed the main principles of the early revolution--civil and legal equality, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudal obligations and legally privileged orders.  It is the:

Identify Peninsular War:

Identify Continental System:

Identify Waterloo?

Be prepared to write essays on:

The Reason why there was a revolution in France in 1789
Evaluate Napoleon
The Congress of Vienna

Be able to identify:
Reign of Terror
Continental System
Peninsular War
Holy Alliance
Congress of Vienna

Chapter 29

India had been left in chaos at his death in 1707.  His campaigns in the south and his continued persecution of the Hindus and Sikhs had brought most of the country to rebellion:

The collapse of Mughal power in India after 1707 was not followed by the rise of a new Indian order.  The subcontinent's legacy of cultural diversity and intergroup rivalry worked against unity, and there was no single successor to the Mughals.  In this confused setting, this trading company founded in 1600 began to extend the position it had slowly built up as a trading agent on both coasts, first to protect its merchants, trade partners and goods against banditry and civil war, then to take on the actual functions of government.  By 1800 it was the most powerful single force in the country, and it had become the real sovereign over most of India:

The first European country to establish itself in India:

Its principal base was:

Three European states successively established themselves in Ceylon:



The three principal territorial bases of the English in India were:



What attracted many Indians to cooperate with the English:


This product of India became so popular in England that the Parliament, concerned to protect English producers, in 1701 prohibited its import:

He ousted the French from the south of India and laid the foundations for British India.  In June 1757 at the Battle of Plassey, with 1000 British and 2000 Indian troops,  he defeated the 68,000 strong army of the nawab of Bengal, which was supported by 50 French field guns:

The "second city of the British Empire," Kipling's "City of Dreadful Night," was:

As the nineteenth century wore on and industrialization and technological progress brought Britain unprecedented wealth and power, British attitudes toward India and the Indians began to change.  How so?

To block Russian influence in Afganistan, the British in 1839 sent an expedition to Kabul.  What was the result?

Indians had never before been effectively united politically or culturally.  What two British introductions to some extent redressed this?


What event largely ended the dream of an Anglo-Indian partnership and transformed England to a frankly occupying power in India?


Be able to identify:

Sepoy Mutiny

Chapter 30

This dynasty came to power in China in 1644 and ruled the empire until 1911.  Under it China became once again the greatest power in the world as well as its richest and most sophisticated society.

Under this dynasty China prospered.  Commercializtion and urbanization begun during the previous two dynasties developed still further.  Agriculture became far more productive.  Though its productivity doubled, population growth, itself a result of prosperity, began to exceed productivity.  In the nineteenth century the dynasty slowly lost its effectiveness.  Peasant poverty bred rebellion, while, at the same time,  China was unable to resist effectively foreign pressure for trade concessions.  In the early 1840s China was defeated humiliatingly by the British in a war called the:

What changes, improvements, and additions to the agricultural system in China help to explain how an already large population could triple in two and a half centuries and still maintain of even enhance its food and income levels?

The treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 established the frontier along the Amur in northern Manchuria between China and....?

What about China impressed the Enlightened thinkers of Europe:


With special attention to the reign of Ch'ien Lung comment on the Chinese saying "Become an official and get rich."

Delineate growing problems with the Chinese bureaucracy [size and recruitment] in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The only Chinese city where westerners were at first allowed to trade:

According to European observers, in the early nineteenth century where was the standard of living higher in China or in Europe?

Discuss the embassy of Viscount Macartney to Ch'ien Lung.

 "...established some 2,000 postal stations along the main and feeder routes...much of which was paved...for emergency messages or documents mounted couriers using relays of fast horses could cover 250 miles a day...certainly faster than anything in the west, and rivaled, at least before the end of the eighteenth century, only by...the Roman Empire at its height."  Where was this:

In Japan centuries of conflict among rival clans degenerated into open civil war in the sixteenth century.   In 1600 a strong new centralized government emerged to unify the country for the first time.  Under this government Japan enjoyed more than two centuries of order, prosperity, and economic growth.  This government was called the:




Japan's self-imposed isolation was broken in 1853 by this person:

Discuss the relations between Japan and the west before 1853.

The shogunate was ended in Japan in 1868.  Ostensibly the emperor was restored but this development but a new group of radical reformers came to power who set Japan on a course of rapid modernization, while China continued to founder.  This change in the Japanese government is called the:

Discuss the status and condition of women in Japan:

In 1770 London was the largest city in Europe.  How did Edo [Tokyo] compare with it in size?

Be prepared to write an essay on:

The West and China

Be able to identify:

Tokugawa Shogunate
Meiji Restoration

Chapter 31

In which country did the Industrial Revolution begin?

In his 1798 Essay on Population, he warned of the danger of unbridled population expansion:

The system in which economic relations are integrated by those who possess as personal or corporate property, the means of production, through which they command both  the labor force and the range of consumer choice:

The two European states in which commercial capitalism was most developed in the eighteenth century:


This country's national Bank was established in 1688.  By 1815 the national debt managed by this institution was held almost entirely by the country's own upper classes.  This oligarchy not only determined the expenditure of the debt through its control of the government but also reaped a direct return through the payment of interest on it [nearly 10% of the government's revenue in 1815].  In effect the state itself had been converted into a giant corporation paying dividends to its wealthy shareholders.  This great capital--the spoils of commercial profit, war, and empire--was a fuel that stoked the engines of the Industrial Revolution no less than coal and steam.   This country was:

Another economic revolution proceeded the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century and was an indispensable pre-condition for the subsequent Industrial Revolution:

The process through which communally farmed open fields and commons ceased to exist in England and was replaced by a system of great estates worked by tenant farmers and hired laborers--no longer independent peasants but agricultural laborers:

What was the most important product of the European economy other than agricultural products in the early eighteenth century?

If free enterprise and laissez-faire so compellingly preached in The Wealth of Nations by  ____________________  were the formula for economic expansion in Britain, this was so within the framework of unfettered access to world markets and vital resources opened up by a century and a quarter of conscious governmental policy.

The two distinctive institutions of the Industrial Revolution were
1)     , the function of which was to concentrate capital; and
2)     , the function of which was to concentrate labor.

The assumptions behind the Poor Law of 1834:

His 1776 Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations asserted that the generation of wealth was the result of each individual pursuing his or her own private interest in an area of competitive equality.  The public interest was the sum of competitive interactions, since the only generalized interest all actors shared in an economic system was to maximize its total wealth, a goal best achieved by ensuring them the liberty to pursue their interests. whether as producers or as consumers as they saw fit.  He was:

Identify Luddism:

What impeded the development of the Industrial Revolution in France?

What impeded the development of the Industrial Revolution in Germany?

Perhaps the most significant and far reaching impact of the Industrial Revolution:

Be prepared to write essays on:

The Agricultural Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Social Conditions during the Industrial Revolution

Be able to identify:

Classical Liberalism
Adam Smith
David Ricardo
Thomas MalthusChapter 32

Define "nationalism":

Define "liberalism":

Define "Romanticism":

Where did the major European powers meet in September 1814 to try to untangle 20 years of war and revolution?

The representative of Austria and dominant figure at this Congress, who was also the preeminent figure in European politics between 1815 and 1848:

The British poet_____________________supported the cause of Greek independence and died in Greece.  The Greeks were seeking independence from


The author of the Sorrows of Young Werther and the poem Faust:

The Enlightenment proclaimed the sovereignty of reason.  This German philosopher fatally undercut its claims by arguing that the human mind was no mere passive receptor of experience, as Locke and other empiricists believed, but a complexity that gave form and shape to phenomenon according to its own internal laws.  Accordingly the world could not be experienced as it was "in itself" but only as filtered through the processes of the intellect and emotion and therefore subjectively.  He was:

This German philosopher argued that all of human history was a great unconscious drama that tended toward the realization of human freedom, which he called the spirit of reason.  He emphasized the role of great men in history and identified nationalism with the progress of freedom.  He was:

What kind of regime was introduced in France by the July Revolution of 1830?

Identify--The Reform Act of 1832 in Britain:

He declared his work to be "scientific" rather than "utopian" socialism.  Arguing humanity's intellectual and social development from its material struggle to wrest the necessities of life from nature, he proceeded to describe the stages of history in terms of a social [class] struggle for control of the means of production.  He was:

Comment on the Revolutions of 1848:

Be prepared to write essays on:

The Congress of Vienna
The Revolutions of 1848

Be able to identify:

Holy Alliance
Congress of Vienna

Chapter 33

________________ in Italy and  __________________in Germany were the two most outstanding examples of the marriage between nationalism and power politics.  In an age increasingly under the influence of science and technology they successfully translated the ideals of an earlier generation into the concrete action of the new.

The ______________________ movement sought to give expression to the centuries-old quest for a Jewish homeland.

In France ___________________________ proposed to eliminate a corrupt Parliament and political parties to open the way to a direct relationship between the citizens and himself through plebiscites based upon universal male suffrage.  He knew almost by instinct what later, twentieth century dictators would discover, that an authoritarian state based upon  nationalist pride and popular consensus and promising both social tranquility and economic prosperity had a strong appeal in times of stress.

French capital financed and a French engineer constructed which canal between 1859 and 1869:

Baron Georges Haussmann directed a massive urban renewal project in which city?

What was the legal condition of women under the Napoleonic civil code?

Material progress made the first decade of the Second Empire some of the best years economically, at least for the bourgeoisie, in the modern history of which country?
But the price of this prosperity was the suppression of political_________
The second decade of the Empire saw the restoration of liberty, but it was accompanied by imperialism and war.
What was the result for this Empire and its ruler of the war with Prussia in 1870?

Nationalism in Italy and Germany was aroused by what?

The great Italian theorist of nationalism who preached a revolution aimed at creating a united Italian republic based on popular sovereignty and universal suffrage:

To what does the Risorgimento refer?

The country [and its ruler] which agreed to assist the Kingdom of Piedmont in expelling Austria from Lombardy and Venetia:

______________________ and _______________________

In 1860 Garibaldi and his 1,000 "Red Shirts" seized ________________

Bismarck stated that Germany would not be united by "speeches and majorities" but by ___________________________________.

Bismarck, in the process of uniting Germany, waged three wars:

1) In 1864 with Austria against __________________________._

2) In 1866, the Seven Weeks War against ____________________

3) In 1870-71, a war against _____________________________

Following the Franco-Prussian War, Germany took from France the province of ____________________
and most of the province of _____________________.

Through the Ausgleich  the Hapsburgs created the Dual Monarchy, through which the Germans of Austria agreed to share their dominant ruling position with the ______________________

Comment on the Vienna of Franz Josef:

The Russian tsar who ended serfdom in 1861:

The struggle for national liberation in Latin America began in 1808 when what happened in Europe:

What led to the end of the last monarchy in Latin America when Emperor Pedro II was overthrown in 1889 and a republic was established?

Be Prepared to write essays on:

Italian Unification
German Unification
Compare and Contrast the Unification of Germany and Italy
The Jewish Question
The Second Empire



Chapter 34

In the second phase of the Industrial Revolution __________________
soon emerged as Europe's industrial giant and rapidly outdistanced Great Britain.

Pioneered by the American automobile manufacturer _______________
the division of labor on assembly lines made cheaper, mass-produced consumer goods available on a wider scale.

Discuss the status of women in view of Victorian values, especially "Bourgeois Respectability":

Identify Dreyfus Affair:

Describe the constitutional system in the Imperial Germany of Bismarck  [i.e. the status and power of the Reichstag].

Identify Kulturkampf:

Who pioneered social welfare legislation in Europe?

To what specific event, according to the text, can the beginning of the modern movement for women's liberation be traced?

Identify Emmeline Pankhurst:

The author of System of Positive Philosophy who argued that laws of social behavior paralleled the physical laws governing the universe and that both were discoverable through the study of specific data:

His On the Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection(1859) was not the first work to posit a theory of evolution, but it explained in unprecedented detail how the evolutionary process worked:

Be able to identify:

Social Darwinism

From chapters 32 and 33 be able to write essays on:

The Congress of Vienna
German Unification
Italian Unification
Compare and contrast the processes of German and Italian Unification
The Revolutions of 1848
The Jewish Question

Chapter 35

What were the reasons for the development of New Imperialism:

Identify John A. Hobson:

Identify Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism:

The two [sic!] states in Africa which maintained their independence during the era of New Imperialism:


Of these one was in fact an American dependency:

After the 1880's the Congo was first controlled by

and then by 2)

This country tried to seize the Christian country of Ethiopia but was defeated by the forces of Emperor Menelik at Adowa in 1896:

The largest empires in Africa were acquired by [countries]

and 2)

In 1875 Ismail, Egypt's ruler, was unable to repay huge loans from French and British bankers.  When, as a result, he was forced to sell his stock in the Suez Canal Company, representing 44 percent of the shares, the prime minister of which country purchased them?
When Ismail suspended payment on Egypt's debt the next year, two European countries assumed joint control of Egypt's finances.  Foreign intervention sparked nationalist reaction among Egyptian intellectuals and army officers.  In 1882 riots in Alexandria led which country to bombard this city and establish a "protectorate" over Egypt?

Identify Afrikaners:

Identify Boer War:

What was the watershed in 1857 which led to the abolition of the so-called Dual System and the establishment of full blown British imperialism in India?

Significance of British Clubs in India?

The greatest power in the world from the mid-eighteenth century to the early twentieth century was?

After World War I, he led the civil disobedience movement in India:

Significance of the Amritsar massacre in 1919?

Why was Siam able to maintain its independence?

In a war in 1894 and 1895 Japan replaced Chinese dominance in

and took from China the island of:

As the result of a war in 1904-5 Japan replaced the dominance of this country in Manchuria:

Discuss the treatment of Korea and the Koreans by Japan:

The Reasons for Imperialism
Ethiopia and Imperialism

Chapter 36

His treatment of psychiatric disorders, based on clinical data, convinced him that behavior is the result of powerful and primitive desires such as aggression and sex.  These drives usually remain in an irrational unconscious, which he called the id.  He believed that the id struggles constantly against the ego, which rationalizes and channels these desires according to the constraints of reality and the socially implanted values of the superego.  He was:

His "Special Theory of Relativity", published in 1905, rejected the notion that space and time were absolutes, suggesting instead that both were relative to the position of the observer.  He was:

E=mc2  means:

Arthur de Gobineau

The members of the Triple Entente (the Allies) were:



Germany's chief ally was:

Based on the likelihood of a two-front war against France and Russia, the strategy assumed that the Russians would take longer to mobilize than the French.  Hence this plan proposed that while Germany remained on the defensive against Russia, two armies--a powerful one sweeping through Luxembourg and Belgium and a weaker force moving from the south to lure the French away from the real attack--would swing rapidly around a central "hinge" and crush the French in a giant pincer.  Having defeated France, the Germans could then concentrate their military strength against Russia.  This plan was called the:

His assassination in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 served as the spark which ignited the First World War:

The three leaders at the Paris Peace conference and the countries which they led:
1)_______________________ from __________________________
2)_______________________ from __________________________
3)_______________________ from __________________________

Wilson had insisted that permanent peace depended upon the creation of an international organization known as:

The general causes of World War I
The Versailles Treaty
von Schlieffen Plan
Balfour Doctrine
Fourteen Points Weimar Republic Brest-Litovsk
MacMahon Pledge
War of Attrition
First Battle of the Marne
Franz Ferdinand

Chapter 37

This event in Russia was provoked by Russia's defeat at the hands of Japan in the Russo-Japanese War:

Nicholas II was persuaded by this event as a concession to create what institution?

The eccentric pseudo-religious charlatan who gained influence over Tsarina Alexandra because of his reputed ability to relieve her son who suffered from hemophilia:

What sort political outlook characterized the leaders of the Russian Revolution of March 1917 and the regime established by them?

The group led by Lenin, which accepted his position that only violent revolution would achieve socialism and that the party should be disciplined and constitute a "vanguard" of professional revolutionaries, who would lead the workers and peasants, and prepare to seize power:

The two principal mistakes of the Provisional Government:


The last head of the Provisional Government in Russia overthrown by Trotsky and Lenin in November 1917:

The treaty which ended the war between Germany and Russia in March 1918:

Between 1918 an November 1920 the Bolsheviks had to fight a civil war for the survival of their nascent regime against opponents collectively known as the:

The 1921 retreat from Marxist orthodoxy, through which Lenin allowed a degree of private enterprise in small industries and the retail trade, ended food requisitioning, and allowed peasants to sell their produce on the open market after paying a small tax is known as:

The founder of the Kuomintang, advocate of the overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty and the establishment of a republic in China:

What specific events [developments] sparked the May Fourth Movement?

The conservative military leader who took control of the Kuomintang after the death of its founder in 1925:

In 1934-1935 he lead his Communist forces on a lengthy fighting retreat, the Long March, from the south of China to Yenan:

After 1910 China's largest city, port, and commercial center:

He gave the independence movement in India mass appeal and a mass following:

He gave practical leadership to the movement for Indian independence, gained organizational control of the Congress Party, and became the first Prime Minister of independent India:

Identify Mohammed Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League:

The architect of modern Turkey and its first president:

New Economic Policy
The principal weaknesses of the Provisional Governmentr in Russia
Why did the Romanoff dynasty collapse?
Why were the Bolsheviks victorious?

Chapter 38

A form of government which imposes complete control over its citizens in order to implement an ideology that seeks to transform society according to supposedly immutable historical laws:

The mass base of fascism came principally from which class?

The founder of the Fascist movement in Italy:

To what does "mutilated victory" of Italy refer?

In 1922 King Victor Emmanuel appointed the leader of the Fascists premier.  The liberal state in Italy had collapsed in the face of which bluff?

The name of the republic established in Germany in the aftermath of World War I?

What event provided Hitler with the mass base he needed to achieve power?

How did Hitler come to power?

The commander of the SS [Schutzstaffel], the Death Head SS [concentration and death camps], and the Gestapo:

The Estado Novo, established in this country by Getulio Vargas, suggests that fascism can be regarded not only as a political movement in individual countries but also as a model for resolving social and economic problems.  Fascism was seen as either a means for speeding up modernization in underdeveloped countries or a method whereby old power elites could retain their authority and status.  On still another level, fascism provided an example of how expanded government authority could alter the nature of society.  Fascism offered new and brutally direct methods for social organization and control.  The state in question was:

He was determined to gain control over the countryside and punish the landowning peasants who had resisted state authority.  Moreover, he wanted to collect grain efficiently and pay for his industrialization programs by controlling grain prices.  The method adopted was to consolidate the thousands of small farms into a few hundred large agricultural enterprises that would use the latest mechanization and management techniques.  Each huge farm would focus on a specific crop, which could be grown more efficiently.  This would result in agricultural surpluses for sale abroad to finance industrialization.  In 1929 peasants were ordered to surrender their land and farm animals to the state and to become members of collective farms.  Except for their houses and personal belongings, members were to turn over their property to the collective and to share the work and the produce of the farm.  The imposer of this system of forced collectivization was:

The process of political terror in which Stalin ordered mass arrests and had show trials conducted in order to cow the people of Russia and reinforce his absolute dominance is known as the :

When, where, and by what was the Great Depression kicked off?

Firmly committed to the principles of a free enterprise market economy, the administration of this US president did little to halt the financial collapse of the stock market and by 1932 unemployment in the US had reached 25%:

When this man was elected president of the USA in 1932, he assumed that he had received a mandate for fundamental change that would reform capitalism in order to save it.  Representing an alternative to socialism and fascism, he advocated forceful intervention by the federal government in economic life.  Along with regulating the economy and stimulating business recovery through deficit spending, his program introduced several basic social welfare programs.  The president was:
His program was called the:

Forced Collectivization

The conditions in Italy and Germany which contributed to the rise of fascism
Forced Collectivization

Chapter 39

In the 1920s and 1930s this Asian country's thriving economy rested upon a precarious base.  Lacking essential raw materials, its chief asset was its highly motivated, well-disciplined work force.  Its political and economic leaders realized that their nation would continue to prosper only if it had a guaranteed flow of raw materials from abroad and secure foreign markets for its finished products.  It was:

What was the first target of Japanese expansion?

When Italy attacked this African country in 1935, the League of Nations imposed economic sanctions, but the League excluded oil from sanctions.  The country was:

The aerial bombardment of this town during the Spanish Civil War became a symbol of the horror of modern warfare and inspired Pablo Picasso to paint his wrenching painting by the same name:

The leader of the Nationalists, the conservatives, in the Spanish Civil War was:

At the Munich Conference in September 1938, Chamberlain and Daladier agreed to the German annexation of this Czechoslovak area:

Trying to save what he could for France in view of the German military victory, he assumed leadership in the French government and requested an armistice with the Germans.  The Germans occupied the northern and western two-thirds of France and he established a puppet regime in the city of Vichy in the south.  He was:

This wartime leader of Britain rallied the English against Hitler:

Two American measures aimed at Japan paved the way to Pearl Harbor:
1)  In 1940 when Japan sighed the tripartite pact with Germany and Italy, in response the United States did what:

2) In 1941 when Japan occupied Indochina, in response the United States did what:

Identify the "Kill all, burn all, loot all!" policy:

The headquarters of Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government after 1938:

Why did the Chinese loose faith in the Kuomintang?

 To what does the Holocaust refer?

To what does "Operation Overlord" or D-Day refer?

The conflict between Soviet and American national interests which dominated the international scene in the post-World War II period was known as the:

This cornerstone of American foreign policy for two decades was launched by President Truman in 1947 when he urged Congress to appropriate $400 million in military aid to bolster the Greek and Turkish governments.  This policy was known as the:

The cornerstone of this policy can be summarized in one word:

The United States also attempted to draw all European states into the American orbit through a massive program of economic development in which the United States offered economic assistance to any European nation which promised to consult with the American government to determine its needs.  This program was called the:

The United States sponsored mutual defense pact in which most Western European nations as well as Greece and Turkey pledged to treat an armed attack against against one as an assault against all:

The Red-baiting senator from Wisconsin who made political mileage for a while through his "Red scare" campaign:

Identify or discuss
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Nuremberg Tribunal
Mao Tse-tung
May Fourth Movement
Chiang Kai-shek

Chapter 40

The leader of the Communist Party of China in its victorious struggle against the Kuomintang:

Chiang Kai-shek and the remnants of the Kuomintang government and army in 1949 fled to this island:

The failed Chinese experiment, which in 1958 attempted to decentralize industrial production and to use the commune as the nucleus for a new type of society:

Under which US President were contacts restored with the People's Republic of China?

The campaign launched in China in 1966 to renew a revolution which the radicals believed had slipped into bureaucratic complacency and opportunism:

The British enclave on the coast of China, a major distribution, commercial, and financial center, which will revert to Chinese control in 1997:

He led the struggle of the Communists in Vietnam first against the French, then against the government of South Vietnam supported by the United States:

Chapter 41

The world's largest Islamic state:

The bloodiest conflicts of the twentieth century in the order of their bloodiness:




Who said "I was not made His Majesty's first minister in order to preside over the liquidation of the British Empire"?

In India this leader of the Muslim League was able to use the war years while the Congress party leaders were in jail to build his political base and then to spread the fear of cultural engulfment and oppression among his followers:

When India gained its independence from Britain in 1947 it was divided into two states:


One of these consisted of two sections.  The eastern section, created from the eastern half of Bengal, was called:

In 1971 it became the independent state of 2)

The dispute over this area has continued to poison the relations between the successor states to British India and has led to three inconclusive wars:

The first prime minister of independent India:

The official language of India, native language of only about 30% of its population:

The "associate language" of India:

She served as prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 until 1984:

What happened to her in 1984?

The first woman to govern an Islamic state was this prime minister of which country?


In Sri Lanka there has been conflict between the majority Sinhalese and the minority consisting of which people?

 Who was the first prime minister of Israel, the single most important figure in the establishment of modern Israel?

In 1978 President Carter was able to persuade the Prime Minister of Israel, Menachem Begin, to sign a preliminary peace accord with Egypt in response to the initiative launched by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.  The accord was named for the site of its signing.  It was called the:

He became the leader of Egypt after a military revolt in 1952 overthrew the corrupt, British supported King Farouk:

In 1979 the shah was forced to flee Iran.  His regime was replaced by a revolutionary Islamic regime inspired and, in fact, led by:

The leader of the PLO:

Chapter 42

Throughout Africa, disparate tribes were yoked together under an alien rule that ignored traditional distinctions of language, culture, and governance and erased tribal boundaries that were the result of centuries of political accommodation no less fragile and complex than those of Europe.  The result was to sow the seeds of later conflict and civil war when the arbitrarily created nations of imperial convenience were suddenly thrust into independence.

The first European colony in Africa to gain its independence:

Britain's most serious difficulties in disengagement occurred in South Africa, where these two large settler states resolutely challenged any challenge to white minority rule:


In 1960 Belgium relinquished its hold on:

In 1975, after a military revolt in Portugal, the new Portuguese government granted independence to Portugal's former colonies:



In 1963 the charter of this organization representing 32 African states recognized the sovereign equality of all member states and the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of each thereby "Africanizing the European partition."  The organization is:

For better or worse, modern Africa, like modern Asia, had been cast in the mold of imperialism and would have to work out its destiny in the forms bequeathed by its departed conquerors.

The first president of independent Kenya:

The leader of the African National Congress, jailed after the Sharpeville massacre in 1961, but released in 1989 by the government of F.W. de Klerk, who began to dismantle apartheid in South Africa:

In 1982  the discredited military regime in Argentina sought to generate nationalist sentiment by challenging Britain for control of this territory:

The Chilean Marxist who came to power with a left-wing coalition government in 1970:

The army with the assistance of the CIA seized control of Chile in 1973.  This general headed the country during a period of repressive military rule from 1973 to 1989:

His guerrilla campaign overthrew Cuba's corrupt dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in 1959:

The site of the badly organized April 1961 invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles  sponsored by the United States:

In 1979 the dictator Somoza was ousted from Nicaragua and replaced by a revolutionary regime headed by this party:

The United States attempted to overthrow the revolutionary regime in Nicaragua by providing support to a group of rebels known as the:

The Mexican party which has provided all of Mexico's presidents since 1920 and has controlled virtually every aspect of Mexican life:

Chapter 43

The leader of post-World War II Yugoslavia:

The leader who rose to dominance in the Soviet Union after the death of Stalin:

In 1956 when this country under the leadership of Imre Nagy threatened to leave the Russian dominated Eastern European block the Russians responded with repressive violence and crushed the insurrection:

The Soviet installed premier of this country who led it to a more liberal form of Communism from 1956 to 1988:

The United Kingdom's first woman prime minister who favored private enterprise and imposed austere fiscal policies on the country.  The result of her policies was a reduction of inflation, but at the price of the highest unemployment since the Great Depression and the increasing polarization of society.  She was:

The French intellectual whose The Second Sex, which demonstrated how women had been subordinated by tradition, social custom, and ideology, provided an early theoretical basis for the women's liberation movements which developed in western Europe in the 1960s:

The 1954 landmark ruling by the US Supreme Court which held that segregated schools violated the constitutions Fourteenth Amendment, which guaranteed all citizens equal protection under the law:

He popularized the passive resistance strategy in the US civil rights movement:

The abiding nationalism of this province of Canada where most French speaking Canadians live has grown into stiff political resistance against the nation's dominant English element:

The process by which the superpowers agreed to formalize the dominance that the postwar settlement had given them:

This rapprochement was the work of an unlikely pair:
1) the US president:

and 2) the Soviet leader:

The scandal which led to the resignation of President Nixon:

The American president who was elected as a conservative in 1980 but whose administration led to a catastrophic ballooning of the US national deficit:

In 1968 reformist within the Czech Communist Party led by this man attempted to liberalize Communist Czechoslovakia, but an invasion by the Soviet led Warsaw Pact cut the reform movement short.  He was:

Brezhnev subsequently asserted the right of the Soviet Union to intervene in the affairs of any "socialist" nation when the regime was threatened internally or externally.   Brezhnev's assertion was called the:

The independent trade union movement organized in Poland by workers at the Gdansk shipyards:

This movement was led by the man who subsequently became the president of post-Communist Poland:

The final leader of the Soviet Union, the author of the policies of perestroika and glasnost:

Elected president of the Russian Republic, this man became the leader of post-USSR Russia in December 1991: