Europe 1914-1945
Spring 2004
Dr. Bernard Cook
Office: Bobet 427
Telephone: 2564

Office Hours:
MWF 10:15-11:15
MW 12:30-2:30

You are welcome to come by at other times as well.

This course will survey significant European political, diplomatic, social, and economic developments from 1914 to 1945. Goals: The student will know, understand, and be able to explain and discuss these developments, will write a well researched, well organized and grammatically correct research paper.

Required reading:

Di Scala, Twentieth Century Europe
You will be given reading assignments from Discala. You are expected to have read the assigned material and on the basis of this reading to be prepared to answer questions, to ask questions, and to discuss.

Ignazio Silone, Abruzzo Trilogy
Read one of the three novels.

Otto Friedrich, Before the Deluge

Otto Friedrich, The Kingdom of Auschwitz

Other Course Requirements:

I require and expect punctual attendance. After the third absence your final grade will be lowered six points for each additional unexcused absence. The first three absences are counted whether excusable or not. I determine the validity of excuses. On the seventh absence (except for very exceptional circumstances, of which I will be the judge) you will receive an F for the course.

Students who arrive late disturb class. It is better to come late than to miss class, but I expect an explanation for late arrival. Late arrivals will be tolerated only in exceptional cases, and only one or two times. If you arrive after the role has been taken, you must offer your excuse after the class. If your excuse is acceptable to me, you will be counted present. If you miss the roll, it is your responsibility to let me know after class that you were present. If you do not let me know immediately after class, the absence registered by your name will not be removed. The third time that a student arrives after class has begun that student is required to come to my office to offer an explanation or that and any subsequent late arrival will be counted as absences.

Students may leave class only for extraordinary reasons and must offer an explanation after class or they will be counted absent.

Make-ups will only be given for reasons which I regard as serious. A rescheduled test will be given only if you notify me within 24 hours of the test, stating the reason for your absence. If I regard your excuse to be legitimate, I will at that time schedule a time for the make-up. Make-up tests as a rule will be more difficult than the original test.


A research paper is due on April 26. Anything less than eight pages or more than twelve pages will not be accepted. You are to submit your proposed title in written form to me for approval no later than February 2. A typed provisional bibliography [in proper bibliographical form--See department of History style sheet if you are uncertain] and a description of what you intend to do [in a single paragraph] are to be submitted to me by February 16. These two sheets must be attached to the end of your completed paper. There will be penalties for failing to meet these deadlines. April 26 is a firm final deadline!

The paper must be typed, and neatly done. Penciled or penned-in corrections are completely unacceptable. I will not accept anything less than a finished product. Returned papers will be penalized. Proper academic form (including endnotes) must be followed. A research paper requires reference notes for quotes, paraphrases, and perspectives and non-general information drawn from particular sources. If you have any doubt about proper form consult the History Department Style Sheet, which is available on the History web site. Correct spelling and grammar are expected. You will be graded on these as well as content and development. Do not use unattributed web sources. These are unacceptable. If you have any questions about this consult with me. Books and/or scholarly journals must be utilized. Any paper based solely on web sources will be unacceptable. The papers are to be lucid, coherent, well thought-out, and well developed. Plagiarism will result in an F on the paper and an F for the course. Any unattributed use of five words in sequence written by someone other than yourself constitutes plagiarism. Unattributed paraphrasing also constitutes plagiarism. You may be asked to bring your sources to my office.

It should not be necessary to state that a "research" paper without footnotes will receive an automatic F. Any paper based primarily on web sources (60 percent or more) will merit a very low grade.

Tentative Schedule:

12 Introduction
14 The Origins of World War I. Read Di Scala chapter 1a, and 52-62, and 86-75.
16 Dr. Anderson on World War I and Women
19 Holiday
21 The July Crisis. Read Di Scala chapter 4a and b.
Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia
23 Film.
26 Di Scala chapter 6c and d. A one to two page typed summary/reaction to the film is due.
28 The War in the West.
Optional Source
Sections on Trench Life: <>. Read two selections.
30 Continued. Read Di Scala chapter 6e.
Pope Benedict's Peace Proposal
Optional Source
Wilson on Austro-German Peace Utterances
2 The War in the East and the Collapse of Russia. Read Di Scala chapter 7a.
"German Meeting on Unrestricted Submarine Warfare"
Zimmermann Note
Optional Sources
Wilson to Senate
Wilson's War Message
Norris Opposes War
4 The Russian Revolution.
Optional Sources
Russian Revolution in Dates
Lenin's Hanging Order
War and the Provisional Government
Notes in Defense of the April Theses
6 The Civil War-NEP. Di Scala chapter 9e.
9 Stalin; Forced Collectivization; the Great Purge. Di Scala chapter 13.
Optional Source
"Was Stalinism Implicit in the October Revolution?"
11 The Defeat of Germany. Di Scala chapter 7b,c,d, and e..
Ludendorff's Acceptance of Defeat
"The Fourteen Points"
Optional Sources
"Allies Conditional Acceptance of the Fourteen Points"
"Lloyd George on British War Aims"
"Armistice Demands"
13 The Armistice; the German Revolution.
16 Versailles. Di Scala chapter 8.
Optional Sources
Ultimatum by Social Democrats
The Peace Treaty of Versailles.
18 Weimar. Read Di Scala chapter 9d and 10a.
20 Test
23 Holiday
25 Holiday
27 Holiday
1 Italy and Mussolini's Rise to Power. Di Scala chapter 9c.
Optional Source
Denis Mack Smith's "Mussolini's Biography"
3 Italian Fascism. Di Scala chapter 12.
5 Silone novel due. Find out what you can about Silone and his political development.
8 Silone
10 Austria; Hungary; Yugoslavia. Di Scala chapter 11a, b, and c.
Optional Source
Treaty of Trainon
12 Greece; Rumania; Bulgaria. Read Di Scala chapter 10 d.
15 Poland; Scandinavia. Read Di Scala chapter 11c.
17 Hitler: The Early Years. Read Di Scala chapter 14.
Hitler's First Anti-Semitic Writing's_First_Antisemitic_Writing.html
Optional Source
Hitler's bio:
Annihilation of the Jews:
19 Hitler's Rise to Power. Due: A three page paper (double spaced typed paper) in which you attempt to explain the climate which contributed to the rise of Hitler based upon your reading of Before the Deluge. Make references to Friedrich's book, indicating the page where the example , paraphrase, or quote is located.
22 The Consolidation of Power [Gleichschaltung] . Read Di Scala chapter 15.
24 The Anti-Semitic Campaign and the Holocaust Di Scala chapter 19d and e.
Nazi statements on the "Jewish Question"
Optional Sources
Destruction of European Jewery Explanatory Timeline
discriminatory measures against the Jews:
Von Galen against Euthanasia
Wannsee Protocol
Auschwitz documents
<> <>
31 Kingdom of Auschwitz quiz.
2 Film: Triumph of the Will
5 Holiday
7 Holiday
9 Holiday
12 Holiday
14 Test
16 Great Britain in the 20s and 30s. Read Di Scala chapter 9a and 10b.
19 Ireland
France in the 20s and 30s. Read Di Scala chapter 9b and 10c and 17a and b.
21 Hitler's Rearmament and the Rhineland; the Ethiopian War. Read Di Scala chapter 17a, b, and c.
23 Spain; the Spanish Civil War. Read Di Scala chapter 11d.
26 The Anschluss Paper due!
Czechoslovakia; the Munich Conference; Slovakia and Czechia. Read Di Scala chapter 17c and d.
"Munich Pact" <>
28 The Non-Aggression Pact and Poland; The Campaign in the West. Read Di Scala chapter 17e and 18.
Churchill's First Speech as Prime Minister
Optional Sources
Chamberlain on the Nazi Invasion of Poland
Armistice between France and Germany
"We shall fight on the beaches"
"Atlantic Charter": <>
30 The Invasion of Russia. Di Scala chapter 19 a, b, and c.
Optional Sources
German Declaration of War on U.S., 1941
U.S. Declaration of War, 1941
3 Yalta; the End of the Third Reich. Di Scala chapter 20.
"Yalta Agreement": <>
5 Wrap-up

Exam: Wednesday, May 12, 11:30

Value of work:

Test 1.................................................20%
Test 2.................................................20%
Research Paper................................…15%
Book discussions/quizes................….10%
Web sites and Di Scala....................…10%

No one who fails to take the exam or fails to turn in a research paper will be assigned a passing grade.

Grading scale:


Students with disabilities who wish to receive accommodations in this class should contact Disability Services at 865-2990 as soon as possible so that warranted accommodations can be implemented in a timely fashion. Disability Services are located in the Academic Enrichment Center, Monroe Hall 405.
Additional Optional Sources

Friedrich von Bernhardi, The Next War,

Various Articles on World War I including Black American soldiers, native American soldiers from Canada, the Black Hand etc.

Armenian Holocaust <>
Treatment of the Armenians," <>
Armenian Holocaust

McMahon Pledge
Balfour Declaration
T.E. Lawrence
Anglo-French Statement of Aims
Lawrence on Mesopotamia

Spanish Civil War

War Trade between Switzerland and the Axis Powers
Switzerland: "Holocaust Era Assets"

Assorted Biographies

Student Project -- Hitler's March on Munich


"Plagiarism-the use of another person's ideas or wording without giving proper credit-results from the failure to document fully and accurately. Ideas and expressions of them are considered to belong to the individual who first puts them forward. Therefore, when you incorporate ideas or phrasing from any other author in your paper, whether you quote them directly or indirectly, you need to be honest and complete about indicating the source to avoid plagiarism. Whether intentional or unintentional, plagiarism can bring serious consequences, both academic, in the form of failure or expulsion, and legal, in the form of lawsuits. Plagiarism is a violation of the ethics of the academic community."

William G. Campbell, Stephen V. Ballou, and Carole Slade, Form and Style: Thesis, Reports, Term Papers, 6th Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 52.

For more information on plagiarism and how to avoid it, go to :

Potential Paper Topics:

Maginot Mentality
Russian Women Combatants WWI
Russian Women Combatants WWII
Russo-Polish War
Fischer Thesis
Anschluss Question following WWI
Hungary at the Peace of Paris
Polish Problem at Paris
Italy at Paris
Yugoslavia at Paris
Birth of Yugoslavia
Keynes on the Peace Settlement
Minority Treaties
The League and Conflicts
War Criminal Issue after WWI
Colonial Question at Paris
Kellog-Briand Pact
Church and the Rise of Fascism
Non Abbiamo Bisogno
Mit brennender Sorge
Women in the German Resistance
University Education for Women
Mutilated Victory

Women and War topics:

Fate of Armenian Women in Turkey
World War I
Austria-Hungary (Home Front WWI)
Belgium (Home Front WWI)
Atrocities, WWI
Stobart, Mabel
Petit, Gabrielle
Bulgaria (Home Front, WWI)
France (Home Front WWI)
Women workers
Women at the Front
Bagnold, Enid
Borden, Mary
Germany (Home Front WWI)
Women workers
Women at the Front
Kollwitz, Käthe
Luxemburg, Rosa
Great Britain (Home Front WWI)
Women workers
TNT Poisioning and women war workers
Voluntary Aid Detachments
Pankhurst Family
Pankhurst, Christabel
Emmelikne Pankhurst
Vera Brittain
Orczy, Emma (Order of the White Feather)
Tilley, Vesta
Great Britain: Women at the Front WWI
First Aid Nursing Yeomanry
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps
Women's Royal Airforce
Women's Royal Navy Service
Women's Land Army
Women's Hospital Corps
Women's Police Service
Women's Patrols

Douglas-Pennant, Violet
Gwynne-Vaughn, Helen
Furse, Katherine
Bagnold, Enid
Cannan, May Wedderburn
Cathcart-Smith, Catherine
Hamilton, Cicely
Italy (Home Front and Services WWI)
Romania (Home Front and Services WWI)
Russia (Home Front and Services WWI)
Farmborough, Florence
Inglis, Elsie
Serbia (Home Front and Services WWI)
Haverfield, Evelina
Ross, Ishbel

Women combatants

Bulgaria Women Combattants WWI
Helene Dutreux
Great Britain
Lawrence, Dorothy
Polish Legion WWI
Sophie Jowanowitsch and Stanislawa Ordynska
Romania Women Combattants WWI
Russia Women Combattants WWI
Marie Baktscharow
Bochkareva, Maria
Dadeshkeliani, Kati
Sophie Alexandrovna Dolgorunaya, Princess
Haletchko, Sophie
Kokovtseva, Olga
Ruz, Helen
Shakhovskaya, Eugenie
Smirnow, Zoya
Yurlova, Marina
Sanders, Flora
Red Cross WWI
Salvation Army WWI
Mata Harri
Clavell, Edith
Women in Ireland
Easter Rebellion
Gifford, Grace
Gonne, Maud
Markievicz née Gore-Booth, Countess Constance
War of Independence

Civil War
German Revolution
The Russian Revolution
The Russian Civil War
Spanish Civil War
La Passionata
World War II
Belgium Home Front WWII
Britain Home Front WWII
France Home Front WWII
Russia Home Front WWII
Italy Home Front WWII
Netherlands Home Front WWII
Wilhelmina, Queen
Germany Home Front WWII
Weibliches Wehrmachtsgefolge
Women in military service
Collette Nirouet
Germany Women in military service
Nazi idea of women
Schmidt, Kitty
Hirsch, Ilse
Wohlauf, Vera
Scholz-Klink, Gertrud
Reitsch, Hanna, test pilot
SS Women
Grese Irma
Koch, Ilse
War Criminals
Bilien, Valentina
Braubnsteiner, Hermine
Great Britain Women in military service
Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA)
Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS)
Field Auxiliary Nursing Yeomanry (FANY)
London Auxiliary Ambulance Service
Mechanized Transport Corps
Royal Women's Auxuiliary Air Force
Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF)
Women's Land Army (WLA)
Women POWs held by Japanese
Women's Royal Army Corps
Women's Royal Enlisted Navy (WREN)
Women's Royal Navy Service (WRNS)
Women's Voluntary Service
Soviet Union Military Women in World War II 2000 Cottam
Women in resistance movements
Czech Resistance WWII and
Haas, Elena
Danish Resistance
Allen, Alma
French Resistance WWII
Mordeaux, Elaine
Sansom, Odette
Tillion, Germaine
Greek Resistance
Germany Resistance WWII
Ballestrem-Solf, Lagi Countess
Buch, Eva Marie
Gloeden, Lilo
Harnack-Fish, Mildred
Herman, Lilo
Hundt, Charlotte
Kirchner, Johanna
Kuckhoff, Greta
Monte, Hilde
Niederkirchner, Käthe "Katja"
Scholl, Sophie
Schulze-Boysen, Libertas
Von Thadden, Elizabeth
York von Wartenburg, Countess Marion
Jehova Witnesses
Hungarian Resistance
Halasi, Janos
Svobod, Maria
Soviet Union Partisans
Ivanova, Liza
Krylova, Vera
Yugoslav Partisans
Kufrin, Milka
Milosavljevi, Danisa
Mira, Milica and Vera Kriuzman
Italian Resistance WWII
Ada Gobetti
Norway WWII
Polish Resistance
Forced Laborers in Germany
Jewish Women and the Holocaust
Death Camps
Salomon, Charlotte
Wertheimer, Martha
Nazi-Occupied Europe
Frank, Anne
Stein, Edith
Warsaw Rising
Landau, Emily
Wehrmacht and atrocities
Romania Army Atrocities
Roma/Sinti Women
Red Army and Rape
Axis Sally, Mildred Elizabeth Gillars
Lady Haw Haw, Margaret White Joyce
Tokyo Rose
Potthast, Hedwig
Chalbur, Vera
Hall, Virginia
Kappius, Anne
Schindler, Emilie
Seele, Gertrud
Wijsmuller, Gertrud
Women's Leader (Nazi)
Scholtz-Klink, Gertrud

Women POWs
Women War Correspondents