|1.||In the first five centuries of the Christian
era, what was the main difficulty that the church had to face?
|2.||What did the Emperor Constantine consider his
obligation toward the church? What was his motivation? How
did Constantine “benefit” the church? What function did he fulfill
that the church was unable to perform for itself?
|3.||What internal mechanism/theory did the Church
develop in order to respond to the threat of heresy? Explain how
it functioned? Was it universally accepted?
|4.||What theory did Augustine of Hippo propose concerning
the relationship of the church and state? Who was his model ruler
and model bishop? What theory eventually evolved from Augustine’s
proposals and when did the church embrace it?
|5.||What were the principal weaknesses and the strengthens
of the Church between 500-700 AD.? Why did the Church in the west
develop differently from the Eastern Church? Why did the pope form
an alliance with the Franks in the 8th century and how was it mutually
|6.||How did Charlemagne aid the church and how did
he “use” the church for political purposes? How did the German kings
“incorporate” churchmen into their administration and what advantages did
it offer? When did western-caesaropapism reach its peak?
|7.||Why did monasticism evolve? What were its
strengths and weaknesses? What problems were addressed by the Cluniac
reforms and how did this strengthen papal prestige? What did Churchmen
consider the problem that had to be solved?
|8.||What was the investiture controversy and how
was it resolved? When did the medieval papacy reach its peak and
what mechanisms did it use to achieve this end? Which class (social group)
tended to be the natural allies of the pope? Of the kings and emperors?
|9||How did the political situation in Europe shift
in the late middle ages and how did this undermine papal influence?
What internal crisis weakened the papacy during the later middle ages?
|10.||How did churchmen
attempt to overcome the problem of authority during the crisis of the Great
Western schism? What role did secular rulers attempt to play?
Identify the following terms:
|City of God|
|Council of Nicaea|
|St. Benedict of Nursia|
|Great Western Schism|