Worksheet 11:   Jensen, Ch. 10 Economic and Social Crisis

Essential Question: What were the causes and results of the price revolution of the sixteenth century and the economic crisis of the seventeenth?

1. A Century of Inflation
In what sense was the price revolution of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries both a regional and Europeanwide phenomenon?  Which two commodities were especially affected by inflation?  To what factors did sixteenth-century Europeans attribute the inflation of the period? Which areas of Europe experienced the inflation first?  What was the general trend in moneys of account during the century between 1550 and 1560?  How were prices and wages related during this period?  Who were the first victims of the price-wage deviation?  Why did the lesser nobility suffer during this period?  Who were the chief beneficiaries of inflation?  How did governments attempt to deal with their financial problems?  What factors led to the financial collapse of the 1650s?


2. International Trade and Banking
How did the European trade network function?  Why was northern European trade becoming more important?  Which nation became the undisputed leader in carrying trade?  Which nation dominated the northern fishing trade?  What factors helped create a Europewide interest and activity in commerce?  How did the commercial revolution of the seventeenth century prepare Europe to become a worldwide power?  What was the most successful form of commercial organization in the seventeenth century and how did it function?  What factors favored Amsterdam as the center of seventeenth-centry banking?  What was the purpose of the Bank of Amsterdam? 


3. Mercantilism
What is mercantilism?  How did mercantilism function?  In what sense were the Dutch "out of step" with the rest of Europe with regard to mercantilism?  What three factors favored the Dutch in their "unique" economic policies? 


4. The Crisis in Agriculture
To what extent did agricultural practices change between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries?  Which area of Europe was noted for his production of cereal grains?  What new innovation by the Dutch aided in cattle production?  What new food crops were brought from the Americas?  Why did agriculture remain serious underproductive until well into the eighteenth century?  What impact did the growing market economy have upon local manorial farming?  How did agricultural patterns differ in Eastern Europe, why? 


5. Industrial Development
Why was mining underproductive relative to the population during this period?  What products were often subject to government monopoly?  What was the nature  of the technological progress of this period?  Which nation led the way in coal production?  What was the greatest stimulation iron production? Which nation led the way as a leading producer and exporter of iron and steel?  Which areas were relatively prosperous and why?  In which European areas were industry and commercial expansion either static or declining during the third decade of the seventeenth century? Where was the economic recession of the 1650s particularly acute? 


6. Population and Plague
By how many millions did Europe's population grow during the sixteenth century?  Why did population decline during the decades of the 1620s, 30s, and 40s?  To why single factor do economic historians now generally give more weight for the price revolution?  Which area of Europe had the densest population in 1600?  What caused a marked decline in Italy during the 1650s?  What caused massive population movements during the late sixteenth century in the Netherlands?  What accounts for the steady rise in Dutch population?  How did most people live in Central Europe?  Why was the population in this region always in flux?  Where was France's population growth most notable?  What  factors tended to impede English population growth?  Why did the population surge in the early years of the seventeenth century come to an end in Germany?  Which Spanish city experienced the greatest growth?  What factors caused a decline in Spanish population?  Which were the areas of Europe that continued to experience some population growth in the seventeenth century?  Which areas suffered the greatest decline?  What factors most explain Europe's population slump in the seventeenth century? 


7. Towns and Cities
Where was most of Europe's large cities located in 1500?  How did the Counter-Reformation popes demonstrate their attention to matters of urban development?  What was the greatest impetus to city growth?  What factors led to the decline of Naples?  What led to the prosperity of Seville and then to its eventual decline?  On what did Lisbon's prospersity based?  Which city became the most cosmopolitan city in western Europe by 1650?  What was the key to its success?  Why did the English government try to stop building outside the walls of London?  On what was London's wealth based? What two factors made Paris the greatest city of seventeenth-century Europe?  What fact tended to keep most capital cities in a state of tension during the early seventeenth century? 


8. Society in Transition
What did most Europeans conceive of as the natural order?  What factors prompted social mobility and how pervasive was such mobility?  How was mobility upward most often achieved?  What caused downward nobility?  What practice tended to infuse new vitality into the nobility? 


9. The Changing Family
How did the importance and responsibility of the extended family change during this period?  What became increasingly the focus of loyalties?  Why did the hierarchical structure tend to gain prominence during this period?  How and why were children "more nurtured" during this period?  Why did parents believe it their duty to repress their children and break their will to resist? Which class of children tended to be least subjected to parental abuse, why?  How did the Reformation change the image of women, and in what sense were the old stereotypes reinforced?  How did women express their economic and social "independence"?  In what sense did the Reformation and Counter-Reformation both "liberate and enslave" women?  

"ghost money"
Dutch East India Company
Drang nach Osten
London Royal Exchange (1566-67)