|1.||A Revolution in Scientific Thought|
|Why did speculation about the character and quality of the cosmos remain
indivisible from conjecture about God and his creations in the sixteenth
century? What was Copernicus' goal in postulating a heliocentric
system? What Aristotelian elements remained in Copernicus' system?
How did Luther greet Copernicus' ideas? What was the chief contribution
of Bernardiono Telesio (1508-88)? What was Giordano Bruno's chief
cosmological positions? What was his fate? In what three ways
did Tommaso Campanella maintain that God revealed Himself to humanity?
What convinced Tycho Brahe of the inadequacy of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic
system? Why did he object to the Copernican system? What was
the nature of Brahe's cosmological model and what were its advantages?
What three laws did Johannes Kepler propose and why were they "revolutionary"?
What new "tool" was helping to undermine Aristotelian physics and allowed
for more quantitative investigation?
|2.||Galileo and the Advance of Science and Mechanics|
|What was Galileo's family and educational background and how might
this have contributed to making him an independent thinker? From
whom did Galileo learn about the "spyglass"? To what use did Galileo
put his telescope and what did it reveal to him? How were Galileo's
ideas initially received in Rome? What two enemies helped to undermine
his position? What admonition did the Roman Inquisition give Galileo
in 1616? How did both Cardinal Bellarmine and Pope Urban VIII soften
the Inquisition decree? How did Galileo incur the rather of the Holy
Office and how did he avoid severe persecution? In what area did
Galileo make his greatest contribution to science?
|3.||The Scientific Method: Bacon and Descartes|
|What elements were lacking in Kepler's explanation of planetary motion?
Who supplied most of the keys to understanding that motion, but what remained
lacking until Issac Newton? Which two intellectual giants of the
early seventeenth century contributed to the development of the scientific
method? According to Francis Bacon, what was the purpose of natural
philosophy? What "idols" prevented the attainment of knowledge?
How did Bacon's method of inductive thought arrive at a general principle?
What were Bacon's main contributions to scientific thought and what were
the limitations of his ideas? What was Descartes personal and educational
background? What was the one thing that Descartes thought could not
be doubted? How does Descartes' method function? For Descartes
what was the only instrument for knowing truth? What were the limitations
and contributions of the Cartesian method?
|4.||Science or Magic?|
|What was the relationship between science and magic in the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries? What were the two types of magic distinguished
by Giambattista della Porta? Christianity linked witchcraft with
what other element? Why did most officials believe that witchcraft
had to be attacked so vigorously? What two forms did witchcraft were
generally recognized in the sixteenth century? How many people were
estimated to have been tried for witchcraft between 1450 and 1750?
How many were executed?
|5.||Religious Thought and Controversy|
|What was the impact of science upon religion during this period?
What was the impact of science upon religion? What was the main difficulty
in harmonizing scientific and religious thought? What dispute divided
Lutheranism after Luther's death? What dispute separated Calvinism?
What was the nature of the dispute between the Dominicans and Jesuits?
Where did Jansenism begin? What was the nature of Jansenism and how
was it similar to Calvinism? What were the Jesuits accused of doing?
What signs were there that France was experiencing a period of vitality
and growth during early seventeenth century?
|6.||Education and the Transmission of Knowledge|
|What was the impact of humanism, the Reformation and the rise of scientific
thought upon education? Why did university education expand dramatically
during the sixteenth century? Who were the two most important printing
families of the period and where were they based?
|7.||Historical and Political Scholarship|
|What factors gave a positive impulse to scholarly production of all
kinds? For what is Lancelot du Voisin de La Popelinière's
work Histoire de France? For what are the Bollandist Fathers
known? What two concepts dominated the political thinking of the
post-Reformation era? How did Johannes Althusius "see" the state?
What "tools" did Grotius use to support his legal ideas? What was
Thomas Hobbes theory of the state and what was its purpose? What
limitations did Hobbes place upon the absolute monarch?
|8.||The Literary World of Early Modern Europe|
|What were the characteristics of Baroque style? What was the
most lasting literary legacy from Italy? The outburst of Spanish
literary vigor was most pronounced in what area? Who were the most
skilled French dramatist of the seventeenth century? With which dramatist
did English drama reach its climax? How did Baroque style find expression
in Italian and Germany music? Which brilliant artist is most closely
associated with the Baroque style in Rome? Where were the most decorative
Baroque church style found? In what German-speaking areas was Baroque
most influential? How did French Baroque architecture differ from
that found in other lands?
|9.||The Beginning of Baroque Art|
|What "craving" underlies Baroque art? What were the typical characteristics
of Baroque art? What was the basic intention of Baroque art?
Who was the most prolific of the Flemish Baroque painters? In which
country was Baroque painting most varied, why? How as the Baroque
style in France different from that in Italy? How was Dutch Baroque
painting of the seventeenth century different in flavor than in Catholic
countries? Who is considered the greatest of the Dutch painters of
the age? Where was Baroque architecture most evident?
|Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)|
|De revolutionibus orbium coelestium|
|Siderius Nuncius (Starry Meessanger)|
|cogito ergo sum|
|Formula of Concord|
|De iure belli et pacis|