Worksheet 12:   Jensen, Ch. 11    The Science and Culture of Post-Reformation Europe

Essential Question:  To what extent did the Reformation influence the cultural and intellectual outlook of Europeans?

1. A Revolution in Scientific Thought
Why did speculation about the character and quality of the cosmos remain indivisible from conjecture about God and his creations in the sixteenth century?  What was Copernicus' goal in postulating a heliocentric system?  What Aristotelian elements remained in Copernicus' system?  How did Luther greet Copernicus' ideas?  What was the chief contribution of Bernardiono Telesio (1508-88)?  What was Giordano Bruno's chief cosmological positions?  What was his fate?  In what three ways did Tommaso Campanella maintain that God revealed Himself to humanity?  What convinced Tycho Brahe of the inadequacy of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system?  Why did he object to the Copernican system?  What was the nature of Brahe's cosmological model and what were its advantages?  What three laws did Johannes Kepler propose and why were they "revolutionary"?  What new "tool" was helping to undermine Aristotelian physics and allowed for more quantitative investigation? 


2. Galileo and the Advance of Science and Mechanics
What was Galileo's family and educational background and how might this have contributed to making him an independent thinker?  From whom did Galileo learn about the "spyglass"?  To what use did Galileo put his telescope and what did it reveal to him?  How were Galileo's ideas initially received in Rome?  What two enemies helped to undermine his position?  What admonition did the Roman Inquisition give Galileo in 1616?  How did both Cardinal Bellarmine and Pope Urban VIII soften the Inquisition decree?  How did Galileo incur the rather of the Holy Office and how did he avoid severe persecution?  In what area did Galileo make his greatest contribution to science? 


3. The Scientific Method:  Bacon and Descartes
What elements were lacking in Kepler's explanation of planetary motion?  Who supplied most of the keys to understanding that motion, but what remained lacking until Issac Newton?  Which two intellectual giants of the early seventeenth century contributed to the development of the scientific method?  According to Francis Bacon, what was the purpose of natural philosophy?   What "idols" prevented the attainment of knowledge?  How did Bacon's method of inductive thought arrive at a general principle?  What were Bacon's main contributions to scientific thought and what were the limitations of his ideas?  What was Descartes personal and educational background?  What was the one thing that Descartes thought could not be doubted?  How does Descartes' method function?  For Descartes what was the only instrument for knowing truth?  What were the limitations and contributions of the Cartesian method? 


4. Science or Magic?
What was the relationship between science and magic in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?  What were the two types of magic distinguished by Giambattista della Porta?  Christianity linked witchcraft with what other element?  Why did most officials believe that witchcraft had to be attacked so vigorously?  What two forms did witchcraft were generally recognized in the sixteenth century?  How many people were estimated to have been tried for witchcraft between 1450 and 1750?  How many were executed? 


5. Religious Thought and Controversy
What was the impact of science upon religion during this period?  What was the impact of science upon religion?  What was the main difficulty in harmonizing scientific and religious thought?  What dispute divided Lutheranism after Luther's death?  What dispute separated Calvinism?  What was the nature of the dispute between the Dominicans and Jesuits?  Where did Jansenism begin?  What was the nature of Jansenism and how was it similar to Calvinism?  What were the Jesuits accused of doing?  What signs were there that France was experiencing a period of vitality and growth during early seventeenth century?


6. Education and the Transmission of Knowledge
What was the impact of humanism, the Reformation and the rise of scientific thought upon education?  Why did university education expand dramatically during the sixteenth century?  Who were the two most important printing families of the period and where were they based?


7. Historical and Political Scholarship
What factors gave a positive impulse to scholarly production of all kinds?  For what is Lancelot du Voisin de La Popelinière's work Histoire de France?  For what are the Bollandist Fathers known?  What two concepts dominated the political thinking of the post-Reformation era?  How did Johannes Althusius "see" the state?   What "tools" did Grotius use to support his legal ideas?  What was Thomas Hobbes theory of the state and what was its purpose?  What limitations did Hobbes place upon the absolute monarch?


8. The Literary World of Early Modern Europe
What were the characteristics of Baroque style?  What was the most lasting literary legacy from Italy?  The outburst of Spanish literary vigor was most pronounced in what area?  Who were the most skilled French dramatist of the seventeenth century?  With which dramatist did English drama reach its climax?  How did Baroque style find expression in Italian and Germany music?  Which brilliant artist is most closely associated with the Baroque style in Rome?  Where were the most decorative Baroque church style found?  In what German-speaking areas was Baroque most influential?  How did French Baroque architecture differ from that found in other lands?


9. The Beginning of Baroque Art
What "craving" underlies Baroque art?  What were the typical characteristics of Baroque art?  What was the basic intention of Baroque art?  Who was the most prolific of the Flemish Baroque painters?  In which country was Baroque painting most varied, why?  How as the Baroque style in France different from that in Italy?  How was Dutch Baroque painting of the seventeenth century different in flavor than in Catholic countries?  Who is considered the greatest of the Dutch painters of the age?  Where was Baroque architecture most evident? 


Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
Siderius Nuncius (Starry Meessanger)
Il Saggiatore
Novum Organum
cogito ergo sum
Malleus Maleficarum
Hugo Grotius
Formula of Concord
De iure belli et pacis
Il Gesù