Worksheet 13:   Jensen, Ch. 12    Age of Absolutism and Upheaval 

Essential Question:   How did the Absolutism arise in the wake of the Reformation and to what extent is it a product of the Reformation Age? 

1. Princes, Parliaments, and Rebellious Subjects
On what concept was the belief of absolute monarchy based?  What practical limitations were there to the king's absolute power?  Why had parliaments been originally established in the Middle Ages?  How had the function of the Parliaments changed by the sixteenth century?  What prompted the rash of rebellions between the 1580s and the 1650s?  How did the rulers attempt to respond?  What were the advantages and disadvantages of selling state offices? 


2. International Relations and Diplomacy
What factors contributed to the development of the theory and practice of international relations?  Why were permanent embassies being established throughout Europe?  What types of considerations motivated the rulers during this period? 


3. Richelieu and the Revival of France
What event renewed the contest for power in France after 1610?  What were the weaknesses and virtues of Marie de' Medici?   What was the prime objectives of Richelieu's policy?  How did Richelieu attempt to break the power of the nobles?  Why did Richelieu build a new navy?  What military "strikes" did Richelieu undertake to weaken the Hapsburgs? 


4. Mazarin and the Fronde
Why was Cardinal Mazarin fail to win the popularity of Cardinal Richelieu?  What prompted the Fronde?  How did it end?  What gave rise to the Fronde de la noblesse and how did it end?  What was the position of France and its monarchy by the death of Mazarin in March 1661? 


5. English Absolutism and Overseas Expansion
Whose son was James I of England?  What problems greeted James I on his accession to the throne of England?  How were religious dissenters, especially Calvinists and Catholics disappointed by James I?  What was the goal of James foreign policy?  How was peace with Spain received by the majority of the English?  How did James I hope to "contain" the Spanish and why was he finally forced to intervene in European affairs with military force?  Why were the American colonies first established and how successful were they?  What legacy did the Mayflower Compact colonies plant?  Where was agricultural wealth first and most dramatically produced by the English American colonies? 


6. Charles I and the Parliamentary Revolt
What foreign problems awaited Charles I as a new king?  What were the issues that divided king and Parliament?  What were more and more of the middle class becoming hostile to the crown?  What brought the contest between king and Parliament of the point of crisis by 1640? 


7. Civil War and Revolution
Who were the main supporters of the royalist side?  Who supported Parliament?  What was the general attitude of the majority of English toward the civil war?  What advantage did the Parliamentary forces possess?  What was Oliver Cromwell's background?  How did Cromwell come "to power" in England?  What was the fate of the king?  With the support of the military, which branch of Parliament ruled England during the Commonwealth?  What was the position of the "Levellers"?  What was the basis of Cromwell's power during the Protectorate?  Briefly assess the place of Oliver Cromwell in history?  How was the monarchy changed after the death of Cromwell? 


8. The United Netherlands
What three nations were Atlantic powers in the early seventeenth century?  In what sense, was the Dutch revolution against the Spanish a conservative revolution?  What type of state resulted from the years of revolt?  What was the main tenets of the Arminians/Remonstrants?  What was the result of the Synod of Dort?  What role did politics play?  What prevented Frederick Henry of Orange from unifying the Netherlands under his centralizing rule?  With what product did Dutch wealth begin?  What factors favored the growth of Dutch economic and commercial power?  Which European power did the Dutch largely replace in the Far East and Java?  What "structure" did the Dutch use to consolidate their power in Asia and the Americas?  What elements "united" the Dutch nation? 


Cardinal Richelieu
Millenary Petition
Gunpowder Plot
Long Parliament
Triennial Act
Battle of Marston Moor (1644)