Worksheet 14:   Jensen, Ch. 13    The Era of the Thirty Years' War 

Essential Question:  How did the Thirty Years' War mark the end of the Reformation Era and change the power structure of Europe? 

1. Spain in Decline
When does the decline of Spanish bullion imports and a marked decline in total tonnage of trade become noticeable?  What problems did Philip III face as king of Spain?   Why did so many Spanish ignore the prophetic warnings of the arbitristas?  How did the reign of Philip IV differ from that of Philip III?  How did Gaspar de Guzmán, duke of Olivares, attempt to revitalize the government?  What was the result of Olivares program of centralization?  What fundamental problem did Olivares fail to recognize?  In large part, why were the French able to defeat the Spanish at Rocroi in 1643? 


2. Baroque Italy
What possessions did Spain hold in Italy and how was Spanish rule maintained?  With which great power did Genoa form an alliance?  What were the chief causes for Venetian decline?  Why was Venice less vulnerable to the vicissitudes of European politics and war?  Why was Venice unable to repulse effectively Turkish power after 1645?  What had been the traditional relationship between Venice and the papacy?  Why was Rome alone among all the Italian states to experience a resurgence of self-confidence and vigor during this period?  In what sense does the patronage of art in Rome reflect the attitudes of the popes?  In what area did Urban VIII hope for great success and what was the result?  Which family ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and to which great power was it allied?  What alliance did the rulers of Savoy use to maintain their independence? 


3. The Ottoman Empire
Under which ruler did the Ottoman empire expand in the sixteenth century?  Was was the nature of Ottoman rule?  How was the Ottoman system organized?  What was the one focus of possible organized opposition to the will of the Sultan?  How did the sultans after Suleiman deal with this problem?  What happened to the empire after its expansive thrust into Europe was stalemated after 1571-81? What led to the revitalization of the empire after 1648?  Which European power aided the Turks in dominating the Mediterranean?  Why didn't the Europeans follow up its victory at Lepanto against the Turks? 


4. The Habsburg Empire
During the reign of Maximilian II and Rudolf II, were did political power actually lay in the Holy Roman Empire?  What problems did the Habsburgs face in controlling/ruling its eastern territories?  On the whole, what was the nature of Habsburg policy?  What German Habsburg territory acted in a similar fashion as the Netherlands had been for the Spanish?  What conditions brought the Empire to the brink of war in the early seventeenth century? 


5. Northern and Eastern Europe
What was the relationship of Sweden in 1523 to its southern neighbors?  Which countries were Sweden's traditional enemies?  How as Sweden able to overcome its limitations of being a small and underpopulated country and become a major player in European affairs?  Why did the participation of Denmark in the Thirty Years' War mark its permanent passing of its supremacy in the Baltic?  Which element of society dominated Poland-Lithuanian affairs?  Why was there greater religious toleration in Poland than anywhere else in Europe until the mid-seventeenth century?  How did Ivan IV expand his authority and reduce the independence of the boyars? What was the fate of Russia between 1584 to 1613?   What was the nature of Russian contacts with the West before the Romanovs? 


6. The Outbreak of the Thirty Years' War
What was the immediate cause of the Thirty Years' War?  Why was the war unable to contain?  How did a mixture of politics and religion convince the rulers of Europe that a time of opportunity had arrived? 


7. War to Exhaustion
After the initial Catholic victories of the first five years, which European power entered the war to champion the Protestant cause?  Who were the chief generals of the Catholic cause?  What was the reaction in the Empire to the Edict of Restitution in March 1629?  How did the princes manage to "limit" the emperors success?  Why were the Swedes so successful during the war and why were they eventually forced to withdraw?  What steps did Richelieu take to undermine the Habsburgs? 


8. The Peace of Westphalia
Who were the heaviest losers in the war?  Who were the chief beneficiaries?  Although the religious motivations that had dominated the early phase of the war were not long prevailed by the end of the war, what indication was there that religious feelings still remained high?  What were the main provisions of the peace?  Why is it difficult to access the impact of the war upon Germany proper? 


9. Epilogue: Legacy of the Reformation Age
After the Peace of Westphalia, what desire seemed to replace the demand for religious conformity?  Why were Europeans becoming more accepting of heterodoxy?  What was the immediate legacy of the Reformation era?  What three changes in Europe are most notable after the Reformation? 


The Peace of the Pyrenees (7 November 1659)  
Andrea Doria
Fra Pietro Paolo Sarpi
"Quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini"
Mohammed Kuprülü
Gustavus Adolphus
Union of Brest (1596)
Fausto Sozzini (1539-1604)
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
"Time of Troubles"
Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov
"defenestration of Prague"
Battle of White Mountain (1620)