Worksheet 3: Jensen, Ch. 2 Martin Luther and the German Upheaval

Essential Question: How did Luther's personal and theological concerns evolve into a Reformation in Germany?

1. The Nature of the Lutheran Schism
What did Luther consider the "real evil"affecting the Catholic Church?  What was the cause of Luther's "mental anguish"?  According to Luther how is salvation obtained?  What role did the printing press play in the "dispute"? 


2. The Road to Reformation 
Over what issue did Luther clash with the church?  What arrangement had the people reached with Albrecht of Brandenburg?  Why did the Leipzig debate become a key step on the road to Reformation?


3. The Road to Reformation 
To which three groups did Luther address his famous treatises of 1520? What three points did Luther make in his Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation? What theological differences did Luther have with the church? Why had the Council of Worms been called, and how did political concerns limit the emperor’s freedom of action?


4. The Crisis Years: 1521-1525
What accounted for Luther’s literary output between 1521 and 1525? What was impact did Luther’s translation of the Bible have? What principles guided “Luther’s” translation? How did Luther respond to his radical friends and the “Zwickau Prophets”?  What led to the alienation of humanism of the older generation from the Reformation? What prompted the “Knights’ Revolt” and what were it results?


5.  The Peasants’ Revolt and the Common Man
What were the causes of the Peasants’ Revolt and what did they want?  Why is the Revolution of the Common Man more accurate? Who was “the common man”?  What sparked the revolt?  How did Luther react? What impact did the revolt have on the course and nature of the Reformation?


6. Lutheran Doctrines
What was the essence of Luther’s religious philosophy? What role did “works” play in Luther’s theology? Which criteria did Luther use for explaining the sacraments? Why did Luther oppose the hierarchical priesthood? What role did the state (territorial princes) have in theory, according to Luther, and what role did they function in reality? What was Luther’s principle of authoritity?


7. The Consolidation and Growth of Lutheranism
How and why did Luther change the liturgy? What type of marriage did Luther have and what role did it play for the wider Reformation? What were the two goals of Lutheran education? To what extent were schools an effective means of spreading Lutheran thought? How were Luther’s ideas institutionalized? What were the principal reasons for the towns turning to the Reformation? How was imagery used to spread theological ideas? Besides the printed word, how were ideas spread?


8. Women and the Reformation
How did most women first come into contact with the Reformation? Why didn’t more openly? How did generally reach to women preaching? How did women generally participate in the Reformation? What impact did the reformation have on the lives of women?  According to Luther, what was the supreme duty of women?


9. The Habsburg-Valois Wars
What prompted the Habsburg-Valois Wars and what impact did they have on the Reformation?  Why had the pope joined the League of Cognac against the emperor?  From where does the term “Protestant” come? Why was the Schmalkaldic League formed, and why was it significant?  Why did Charles V reach a truce with the Protestants in 1532?  Why did the attempt at religious compromise fail in 1540 and 1541?  Why did the Augsburg Interim and the Leipzig Interim fail as a basis for religious peace?  What setbacks forced the Charles V to conclude the Peace of Augsburg?  What was the impact of the Peace of Augsburg (1555)?

Luther’s “Tower Experience”
Johann Tetzel
The Ninety-Five Theses
Edict of Worms
Philipp Melanchthon
Ulrich von Hutten /Franz von Sickingen
Thomas Münster
Against the Thievish, Murderous Hordes of Peasants
“A Mighty Fortress is Our God”
Barbara Prickheimer
Sack of Rome (1527)
The Augsburg Confession
Battle of Mühlberg (24 April 1547)
Augsburg Interim
Leipzig Interim