|1.||Lutheranism in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe|
|What was the political condition of Scandinavia at the beginning of
the sixteenth century? What was the main instrument of religious
revolt in northern lands? Why did the Reformation move slower in
Norway and Sweden than in Denmark? Why was the spread of the Reformation
sporadic and uneven in the eastern lands? Why did Calvinism spread
better in Bohemia than did Lutheranism? How did the eastern European
experience of the Reformation parallel that of western Europe?
|2.||Political and Religious Unrest in Switzerland|
| How did the forest cantons differ from the urban cantons?
On what was the unity of Switzerland based in the early 16th century?
Why were the towns of the western lowlands ill disposed toward the upper
clergy and did changes in the late 15th century shift the balance of power?
|3.||Zwingli and the Reformation in Zürich|
|How did Zwingli receive his position in Zürich? According
to Zwingli, how dependent were his ideas upon the teaching of Luther?
Why wasn't the reformation more vigorously opposed by the papacy?
How were Luther's and Zwingli's ideas alike? Why was Zwingli more
directly involved in politics than was Luther? What issue most
separated Zwinglians and Lutherans? Who sponsored the Marburg Colloquy
between Zwingli and Luther in 1529? What were the results of
the second Kappel War?
|Where did Anabaptism begin and what was its goal? What was the
key feature of Conrad Grebel's belief? Which groups found Anabaptist
thought most appealing? Why? What was the place of women in
Anabaptist society? In what ways did they agree with Zwingli's doctrines
and how did differ from Zwingli and Luther on the issue of salvation?
Why were the Anabaptists so universally persecuted? What issue divided
the Anabaptists in Moravia? What was the fate of the Anabaptist settlement
in Austerlitz? What was the basic nature of Hutterite teaching and
|5.||Anabaptists in the Netherlands and Northern Germany|
|How did Jan Matthys change Melchior Hoffman's teaching? What
type of society was established in Münster after 1533? What
was its fate? What was the nature of Menno Simons' beliefs?
What did he believe was the focus of a believer's activities? Where
did the Mennonites settle and what admonition of their patron did they
|6.||Spiritual Reformers and Mystics|
|What were the basic ideas of the "spiritualist" reformers toward a
visible organized church? How did their view of the bible differ
from that of the Protestant reformers? What did Hans Denck believe
was the key to sorrow and damnation? What aspect of Luther's thought
did he most dislike? What was the general "spiritualist" attitude
toward the Bible? How did Johann Bünderlin and Christian Entfelder
conceive of Christianity? In what way did Sebastian Franck carry
the Renaissance value of "individualism" to it logical conclusion?
|7.||Reformers in Italy and Spain|
|What impact did the "Lutheran threat' have on the Church in Italy?
Why did liberal reform in Spain give way to oppressive persecution by the
1530s? What role did humanism play in the ideas of Italian and Spanish
reformers? What article of faith did Michael Servetus refute, and
what was the result?
|8.||Jews and the Reformation|
|Where did European Jews often flee when their lives became intolerable
in the West? What role did the Jews play in Renaissance society?
What "drive" ultimately changed the atmosphere between Christian and Jew?
Where was the term "ghetto" first used and what did it come to mean?
What was the difference between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews? What
factors helped bring greater pressure to convert the Jews? How did
Luther's attitude toward the Jews change over time? Why? How
did Pope Paul IV's attitude reverse the attitude of the Renaissance popes
toward the Jews? What accounted for this change of attitude?
|Copenhagen Confession (1530)|
|Battle of Mohács (1526)|
|Commentary on the True and False Religion|
|The Kappel Wars|