Worksheet 4: Jensen, Ch. 3 The Expanding Reformation

Essential Question: How did the Reformation spread outside of Germany and what new reformation ideas arose in its wake?

1. Lutheranism in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe
What was the political condition of Scandinavia at the beginning of the sixteenth century?  What was the main instrument of religious revolt in northern lands?  Why did the Reformation move slower in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark?  Why was the spread of the Reformation sporadic and uneven in the eastern lands?  Why did Calvinism spread better in Bohemia than did Lutheranism?  How did the eastern European experience of the Reformation parallel that of western Europe?


2. Political and Religious Unrest in Switzerland
 How did the forest cantons differ from the urban cantons?  On what was the unity of Switzerland based  in the early 16th century?  Why were the towns of the western lowlands ill disposed toward the upper clergy and did changes in the late 15th century shift the balance of power? 


3. Zwingli and the Reformation in Zürich
How did Zwingli receive his position in Zürich?  According to Zwingli, how dependent were his ideas upon the teaching of Luther?  Why wasn't the reformation more vigorously opposed by the papacy?  How were Luther's and Zwingli's ideas alike?  Why was Zwingli more directly involved in politics than was Luther?   What issue most separated Zwinglians and Lutherans?  Who sponsored the Marburg Colloquy between  Zwingli and Luther in 1529?  What were the results of the second Kappel War? 


4. The Anabaptists
Where did Anabaptism begin and what was its goal?  What was the key feature of Conrad Grebel's belief?  Which groups found Anabaptist thought most appealing?  Why?  What was the place of women in Anabaptist society?  In what ways did they agree with Zwingli's doctrines and how did differ from Zwingli and Luther on the issue of salvation?  Why were the Anabaptists so universally persecuted?  What issue divided the Anabaptists in Moravia?  What was the fate of the Anabaptist settlement in Austerlitz?  What was the basic nature of Hutterite teaching and society?


5.  Anabaptists in the Netherlands and Northern Germany
How did Jan Matthys change Melchior Hoffman's teaching?  What type of society was established in Münster after 1533?  What was its fate?  What was the nature of Menno Simons' beliefs?  What did he believe was the focus of a believer's activities?  Where did the Mennonites settle and what admonition of their patron did they follow?


6. Spiritual Reformers and Mystics
What were the basic ideas of the "spiritualist" reformers toward a visible organized church?  How did their view of the bible differ from that of the Protestant reformers?  What did Hans Denck believe was the key to sorrow and damnation?  What aspect of Luther's thought did he most dislike?  What was the general "spiritualist" attitude toward the Bible?  How did Johann Bünderlin and Christian Entfelder conceive of Christianity?  In what way did Sebastian Franck carry the Renaissance value of "individualism" to it logical conclusion? 


7. Reformers in Italy and Spain
What impact did the "Lutheran threat' have on the Church in Italy?  Why did liberal reform in Spain give way to oppressive persecution by the 1530s?  What role did humanism play in the ideas of Italian and Spanish reformers?  What article of faith did Michael Servetus refute, and what was the result?


8. Jews and the Reformation
Where did European Jews often flee when their lives became intolerable in the West?  What role did the Jews play in Renaissance society?  What "drive" ultimately changed the atmosphere between Christian and Jew?  Where was the term "ghetto" first used and what did it come to mean?  What was the difference between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews?  What factors helped bring greater pressure to convert the Jews?  How did Luther's attitude toward the Jews change over time?  Why?  How did Pope Paul IV's attitude reverse the attitude of the Renaissance popes toward the Jews?  What accounted for this change of attitude?


Copenhagen Confession (1530)
Battle of Mohács (1526)
Commentary on the True and False Religion
The Kappel Wars
Schleitheim Articles
Michael Sattler
 Balthasar Hübmmaier
Melchior Hoffman
Menno Simons
Michael Servetus
Olympia Morata