|1.||Reformation and Repression in France|
|In respect to the Reformation, how did the first half of the sixteenth
century differ from that of the latter half of the century? How did
Francis I's political situation differ from that of Charles V? Why
was the social and intellectual climate less favorable to the Reformation
in France in comparison to Germany? From where did the first winds
of religious revolt come? What were the principle instruments for
control and suppression of doctrinal change in France? Why was the
king not particularly "concerned" about the reformers?
|2.||John Calvin and the Institutes of the Christian Religion|
|What were the two main intellectual influences upon Calvin? What
was the outward turning point in Calvin's conversion to Protestant thought?
What qualities made Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion
such an important piece of Reformation and French literature?
|3.||Calvin and the Beginning of the Reformation at Geneva|
|What type of government (jurisdictions) did Geneva have in 1536?
For all practical purposes how was Geneva governed? What issue divided
the citizenry during the 1530s? Why was it "inevitable" that Geneva
would turn more and more to the Protestants? How successful were
Calvin's early attempts to reform and regulate the lives of the Genevans?
Over what issue did Calvin and the city council "lock horns"? What
were the results of this struggle?
|4.||Strasbourg, Calvin, and Martin Bucer|
|In what sense was Martin Bucer's religious community in Strasbourg
unique? What was Calvin's function in Strasbourg and what did
he learn from Bucer? Why did Calvin return to Geneva in 1541 and
how was he received?
|5.||The Church in Geneva|
|On what point was Calvin forced to "back down" in his discussions with
the city administration? What institution retained the administration
of ecclesiastical discipline? What were the four orders of offices
and what were their functions? What was the purpose and composition
of the Consistory? What was Calvin's attitude toward "free will."
Why did discontent with Calvin grow after 1546? The crisis in the
conciliar elections of 1548 was a contest between which two groups?
Which one won? Why did Calvin and his opponents continue to work
together? Over what issues did Sebastian Castellio and Calvin quarrel?
Who won? Over what issue did Jerome Bolsec and Calvin quarrel?
How did Calvin secure his complete victory? Why did Calvin have Michael
Servetus executed and what was the impact of did this affair have on Calvin's
|What was the heart of Calvin's theological system and from where did
he acquire it? How did Calvin claim that we "know God"?
What were the basic tenets of Calvin's theology? Who received "justifying
grace"? According to Calvin, why did God foreordain some to eternal
life and some to eternal damnation? What was the nature of the invisible
and visible Church? What was the purpose and function of the church?
How did Calvin's position on the nature of the Eucharist disagree with
that of Luther and Zwingli? What was the role of Church and State
in Calvinism and what was the function of the State? Who had the
right to "overturn intolerable governments?
|7.||The Calvinist Appeal|
|What was the nature of the Christian life according to Calvin?
What were the "signs" of the elect? What factors contributed to the
social appeal of Calvinism? What was the implications of Calvin's
"doctrine of calling"? Which urban groups were most attracted to
Calvinism? Why were nobles often attracted to Calvinism? What
was Calvin's attitude toward women? According to Natalie Davis, what
were the three characteristics of female adherence to Calvinism?
|8.||The Spread of Calvinism|
|What was Calvinism better equipped for international expansion?
What factors contributed to the rapid growth of Calvinism in France?
What did so many nobles join the Calvinist movement? Why was Calvinism's
spread initially slow in the Netherlands? What factors made Calvin's
theology appealing to the Dutch? How was Calvinism spread in Germany?
Why was Calvinism's penetration into the Empire more sporadic and ineffectual
compared to its success in the West. Which group tended to sponsor
Calvinism in Eastern Europe and what factors favored its initial spread?
Where did Knox get his Calvinist ideas? What political situation
in Scotland made a reformation attractive to many?
|Concordat of Bologna|
|Marguerite of Navarre|
|Affair of the Placards (18 October 1534)|
|Ecclesiastical Ordinances of the Church of Geneva|
|Letter to the Queen of Navarre by Marie Dentière|
|First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women|