Worksheet 5: Jensen, Ch. 4 The Rise and Expansion of Calvinism

Essential Question: What is the Origin and Nature of Calvinism and why did it become the most popular form of international Protestantism? 

1. Reformation and Repression in France
In respect to the Reformation, how did the first half of the sixteenth century differ from that of the latter half of the century?  How did Francis I's political situation differ from that of Charles V?  Why was the social and intellectual climate less favorable to the Reformation in France in comparison to Germany?  From where did the first winds of religious revolt come?  What were the principle instruments for control and suppression of doctrinal change in France?  Why was the king not particularly "concerned" about the reformers? 


2. John Calvin and the Institutes of the Christian Religion
What were the two main intellectual influences upon Calvin?  What was the outward turning point in Calvin's conversion to Protestant thought?  What qualities made Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion such an important piece of Reformation and French literature? 


3. Calvin and the Beginning of the Reformation at Geneva
What type of government (jurisdictions) did Geneva have in 1536?  For all practical purposes how was Geneva governed?  What issue divided the citizenry during the 1530s?  Why was it "inevitable" that Geneva would turn more and more to the Protestants?  How successful were Calvin's early attempts to reform and regulate the lives of the Genevans?  Over what issue did Calvin and the city council "lock horns"?  What were the results of this struggle? 


4. Strasbourg, Calvin, and Martin Bucer
In what sense was Martin Bucer's religious community in Strasbourg unique?   What was Calvin's function in Strasbourg and what did he learn from Bucer?  Why did Calvin return to Geneva in 1541 and how was he received? 


5. The Church in Geneva
On what point was Calvin forced to "back down" in his discussions with the city administration?  What institution retained the administration of ecclesiastical discipline?  What were the four orders of offices and what were their functions?  What was the purpose and composition of the Consistory?  What was Calvin's attitude toward "free will."  Why did discontent with Calvin grow after 1546?  The crisis in the conciliar elections of 1548 was a contest between which two groups?  Which one won?  Why did Calvin and his opponents continue to work together?  Over what issues did Sebastian Castellio and Calvin quarrel?  Who won?  Over what issue did Jerome Bolsec and Calvin quarrel?  How did Calvin secure his complete victory?  Why did Calvin have Michael Servetus executed and what was the impact of did this affair have on Calvin's reputation?


6. Calvinist Theology
What was the heart of Calvin's theological system and from where did he acquire it?  How did Calvin claim that we "know God"?   What were the basic tenets of Calvin's theology?  Who received "justifying grace"?  According to Calvin, why did God foreordain some to eternal life and some to eternal damnation?  What was the nature of the invisible and visible Church?  What was the purpose and function of the church?  How did Calvin's position on the nature of the Eucharist disagree with that of Luther and Zwingli?  What was the role of Church and State in Calvinism and what was the function of the State?  Who had the right to "overturn intolerable governments?


7. The Calvinist Appeal
What was the nature of the Christian life according to Calvin?  What were the "signs" of the elect?  What factors contributed to the social appeal of Calvinism?  What was the implications of Calvin's "doctrine of calling"?  Which urban groups were most attracted to Calvinism?  Why were nobles often attracted to Calvinism?  What was Calvin's attitude toward women?  According to Natalie Davis, what were the three characteristics of female adherence to Calvinism? 


8. The Spread of Calvinism
What was Calvinism better equipped for international expansion?  What factors contributed to the rapid growth of Calvinism in France?  What did so many nobles join the Calvinist movement?  Why was Calvinism's spread initially slow in the Netherlands?  What factors made Calvin's theology appealing to the Dutch?  How was Calvinism spread in Germany?  Why was Calvinism's penetration into the Empire more sporadic and ineffectual compared to its success in the West.  Which group tended to sponsor Calvinism in Eastern Europe and what factors favored its initial spread?  Where did Knox get his Calvinist ideas?  What political situation in Scotland made a reformation attractive to many? 

Concordat of Bologna
Meaux group
Marguerite of Navarre
Affair of the Placards (18 October 1534)
Guilaume Farel
Martin Bucer
Ecclesiastical Ordinances of the Church of Geneva
Letter to the Queen of Navarre by Marie Dentière
John Knox
First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women
Mary Stuart