Worksheet 6: Jensen, Ch. 5 The English Reformation

Essential Question: What were the causes of the English Reformation and what were its principal stages?

1. Clergymen, Reformers, and Humanists
What were the chief complaints against the English clergy?  What reputation did English ecclesiastical courts "enjoy"?  What were the basic teachings of the Lollards and on whose ideas did they build?  What role did mysticism play in weakening the sacramental understanding of the church?  Who were the two principal Christian humanists in England and what was their program of reform?  How did most of the English humanists greet Luther's ideas?  For what is Tyndale famous?  Whose ideas most influenced the English reformers?  What was the fate of most the of the early English reformers?  How did Cardinal Thomas Wolsey "prepare" the way for the reformation in England?


2. Henry VIII and the Divorce Controversy
What was the unique factor in the English Reformation?  Why was Henry VIII and Pope Clement VII such "natural allies"?  What considerations prevented Pope Clement VII from granting Henry VIII's request for an annulment?  What were Henry VIII's grounds for seeking an annulment and what was his political rational?  How did Cardinal Wolsey's failure mark an end to the "old system"? 


3. The Break with Rome
Who replaced Wolsey and one what condition?  How did Henry VIII seek to pressure Clement VII?  Why did this policy fail?  How did the personalities of Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell differ?  What roles did each play? What pretext did Henry VIII use against the papacy in 1531?  What event precipitated Thomas More's resignation as chancellor?  Why did Henry VIII secretly marry Anne Boleyn?


4. Reign by Statute and Terror
How did the English people greet the news of Henry's divorce? How did Henry deal with his opposition?  In what way were the acts of the Refromation Parliament of 1534 significant in constitutional history?  Why were John Fisher and Thomas More arrested and what was their fate? 


5. The Henrician Reformation Completed
What other key problem faced Henry VIII's government, and how did Thomas Cromwell attempt to solve it?  What issue motived the revolt of the Pilgrimage of Grace?  What was its fate?  What was the attitude of the English people toward the Henrician Reformation?  Which groups  profited from the dissolution of the monasteries and how did this tie them further to the crown?


6. The Last Decade of Henry's Rule
What were Thomas Cromwell's chief accomplishments?  What were his main difficulties in retaining power?  Why did Henry marry Anne of Cleves?  What led to Thomas Cromwell's fall from power?  Why were Henry's last six and a half years so disasterous for England?  In what area did Henry most miss Cromwell's expertise?


7. The Reformation under Edward VI
What was the single achievement of Somerset's regency of Edward VI?  Besides Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset, who else favored a more protestant turn in the English reformation?  Adherents to which continental reformer had the greatest impact upon the English reformers' thinking at this time?  What was Archbishop Cranmer's view of reform and the Eucharist?  How was the Edwardian Reformation achieved?  What principles guided the first Book of Common Prayer?  What was the attitude toward the liturgy and scripture?  What accounts for the rapid rise in Protestant doctrine in English reform?  What factors led to the demise of the duke of Somerset?  What type of man was John Dudley and what was his religious policy?  In what sense was the English Reformation now distinctly Protestant after 1552?  How does Dudley attempt to seize control as Edward sickens and dies?  Why isn't he successful?


8. Queen Mary and the Catholic Restoration
Whose dauther was Queen Mary I?  What personal and political difficulties did she face?   How did Mary attempt to restore England to the Catholic fold?   Why did her marriage result in widespread opposition?  How did Mary deal with vocal opponents?  How did the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis mark a watershed in the political fortunes of Europe?


Supplication of Beggars
Cambridge Circle
"Defender of the Faith"
Anne Boleyn
Elizabeth Barton/Holy Maid of Kent
Heresy Act
Act of Dissolution 1536/1537
The Pilgrimage of Grace
Northumberland Interim
Forty-Two Articles (1553)
Lady Jane Grey (Dudley)
"Bloody Mary"
First Blast