|1.||Catholic Reformers in Spain and Italy|
|How and why was the Church in Italy and Spain different that in Germany
and northern Europe? How did Isabel and Ferdinand attack the problem
of ecclesiastical abuse? What role did women play in the reform movement
in Spain? What were the chief sources of inspiration in the Alumbrados
movement? What was the "official" purpose for the founding
of the Spanish Inquisition? Who were its victims? What was
the Spanish perception of the Inquisition? What was Gasparo
Contarini's attitude toward Luther's doctrine?
|2.||Reformed and New Religious Orders|
| How were the monastic reform movements of the early sixteenth
century unique in the history of monastic reform? Which of the old
monastic orders experienced the earliest revitalization? Why had
Luther gone to Rome in 1510? Which mendicant order had been most
often reformed? Which order was most influential in keeping the common
people Catholic and why? What role did the confraternities play in
spiritual revitalization? Why was their original purpose? What was
the purpose of the "Oratory of Divine Love? What was the purpose
of the "clerks regular? What was the attitude of the Theatines,
Somaschi and Barnabites toward the relationship of contemplation and external
works? How were the Ursulines initially different from other female
orders and what was the eventual response of Pope Paul V in 1612?
|3.||Ignatius Loyola and the Society of Jesus|
|What was Ignatius' personal background? What led to his "conversion
experience"? What were the main features of the Spiritual Exercises?
What was the initial intent of the early Jesuits? When was the order
approved? What characteristic marked Jesuit organization and spirituality?
What was the unique feature of Jesuit organization? Why were the
Jesuits initially distrusted by the kings of Span and France, by the popes?
Over what issue did Ignatius clash with the Spanish Inquisition?
What were the three major aims of the Jesuit order?
|4.||Jesuit Missionaries Overseas|
|Where was Jesuit overseas missionary efforts first directed?
How long did Francis Xavier stay in Japan? How successful was his
mission? Why did Xavier decide to go to China? What was the
fate of Jesuit missionary efforts in Japan? Who was the principal
Jesuit missionary to China? Where were the Jesuits most successful
in the Americas? What method did they use? How did the goals
of the Jesuits in the overseas mission differ from those in Europe?
|5.||Papal and Imperial Reforms|
| why did the Renaissance popes not give sufficient attention to
religious and moral reforms? How does the election of Adrian VI mark
a distinct change in the attitude of the papacy toward reform? What
was this attitude not translated into greater action? Under which
pope did the Catholic Reformation reach its peak? How did Clement
VII and Paul III differ in their reasons for delaying a council?
What was the conclusions of the precouncil committee of inquiry contained
in its report of 1537? On what "grounds" did the schism between the
Catholic and Protestant reformers grow wider?
|6.||Counter-Reformation: Inquisition and Index|
|What fundament error did both Pope Paul III and the Emperor Charles
V make concerning the nature of the Protestant revolt? What two measures
did the Paul III and Paul IV institute to retard the spread of Protestantism?
What characteristics marked the pontificate of Paul IV and how did they
represent a change from the Catholic Reformation to the Counter-Reformation.
|7.||The Council of Trent|
|What factors make the actually calling of a council difficult?
How did the popes manage to dominate the various sessions of the Council
of Trent? How did national interests of Spain, France
and the Empire differ in respect to the goals of the council?
In what sense, did the council mark a "papal" victory?
|8.||The Counter-Reformation Papacy and Tridentine Revival|
|What was the nature of the "Tridentine spirit"? What were the
major achievements of Trent? In what sense, may Pope Sixtus V be
said to represent a return to the ideas and policy of the Renaissance
papacy? How did his policy differ? What made Carlo Borromeo
a model of reformed Catholicism? How did Anna Bijns and Saint Teresa
of Avila differ in their support of the church and the cause of reform?
|9.||The Art of Reformation and Counter-Reformation|
|Generally, how has the quality of artistic production been
judged following the Baroque? Who was the most capable and prolific
propagandist of the Protestant Reformation? What factors contributed
to the decline of German art following the death of Albrecht Dürer?
What were the qualities of mannerism, and where was it most influential?
What was the most prominent feature of Mannerist art? Who was the
most flamboyant maverick of Mannerism?
|10||The Impact of the Reformation -- Protestant and Catholic|
|What was the main legacies of the Reformation? How can one defend
the idea that the overall impact of the Reformation in the sixteenth century
|Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros|
|Tomás de Torquemada|
|Regensburg Colloquy of 1541|
|Gian Matteo Gilberti|
|Angela Merici of Brescia (1474-1540)|
|Congregation of the Oratory|
|San Juan de la Cruz|