Worksheet 7: Jensen, Ch. 6 

Essential Question: What were the main features of the Catholic Reformation and how successful was the Catholic Counter-Reformation?

1. Catholic Reformers in Spain and Italy
How and why was the Church in Italy and Spain different that in Germany and northern Europe?  How did Isabel and Ferdinand attack the problem of ecclesiastical abuse?  What role did women play in the reform movement in Spain?  What were the chief sources of inspiration in the Alumbrados movement?   What was the "official" purpose for the founding of the Spanish Inquisition?  Who were its victims?  What was the Spanish perception of the  Inquisition?  What was Gasparo Contarini's attitude toward  Luther's doctrine? 


2. Reformed and New Religious Orders
 How were the monastic reform movements of the early sixteenth century unique in the history of monastic reform?  Which of the old monastic orders experienced the earliest revitalization?  Why had Luther gone to Rome in 1510?  Which mendicant order had been most often reformed?  Which order was most influential in keeping the common people Catholic and why?  What role did the confraternities play in spiritual revitalization?  Why was their original purpose? What was the purpose of the "Oratory of Divine Love?  What was the purpose of the "clerks regular?   What was the attitude of the Theatines, Somaschi and Barnabites toward the relationship of contemplation and external works?  How were the Ursulines initially different from other female orders and what was the eventual response of Pope Paul V in 1612? 


3. Ignatius Loyola and the Society of Jesus
What was Ignatius' personal background?  What led to his "conversion experience"?  What were the main features of the Spiritual Exercises?  What was the initial intent of the early Jesuits?  When was the order approved?  What characteristic marked Jesuit organization and spirituality?  What was the unique feature of Jesuit organization?  Why were the Jesuits initially distrusted by the kings of Span and France, by the popes?  Over what issue did Ignatius clash with the Spanish Inquisition?  What were the three major aims of the Jesuit order? 


4. Jesuit Missionaries Overseas
Where was Jesuit overseas missionary efforts first directed?  How long did Francis Xavier stay in Japan?  How successful was his mission?  Why did Xavier decide to go to China?  What was the fate of Jesuit missionary efforts in Japan?  Who was the principal Jesuit missionary to China?  Where were the Jesuits most successful in the Americas?  What method did they use?  How did the goals of the Jesuits in the overseas mission differ from those in Europe? 


5. Papal and Imperial Reforms
 why did the Renaissance popes not give sufficient attention to religious and moral reforms?  How does the election of Adrian VI mark a distinct change in the attitude of the papacy toward reform?  What was this attitude not translated into greater action?  Under which pope did the Catholic Reformation reach its peak?  How did Clement VII and Paul III differ in their reasons for delaying a council?  What was the conclusions of the precouncil committee of inquiry contained in its report of 1537?  On what "grounds" did the schism between the Catholic and Protestant reformers grow wider? 


6. Counter-Reformation: Inquisition and Index
What fundament error did both Pope Paul III and the Emperor Charles V make concerning the nature of the Protestant revolt?  What two measures did the Paul III and Paul IV institute to retard the spread of Protestantism?  What characteristics marked the pontificate of Paul IV and how did they represent a change from the Catholic Reformation to the Counter-Reformation.


7. The Council of Trent
What factors make the actually calling of a council difficult?   How did the popes manage to dominate the various sessions of the Council of Trent?    How did national interests of Spain, France and the Empire differ in respect to the goals of the council?   In what sense, did the council mark a "papal" victory? 


8. The Counter-Reformation Papacy and Tridentine Revival
What was the nature of the "Tridentine spirit"?  What were the major achievements of Trent?  In what sense, may Pope Sixtus V be said to represent a return to the ideas and policy of the  Renaissance papacy?  How did his policy differ?  What made Carlo Borromeo a model of reformed Catholicism?  How did Anna Bijns and Saint Teresa of Avila differ in their support of the church and the cause of reform? 


9. The Art of Reformation and Counter-Reformation



Generally, how has the quality of artistic production been judged following the Baroque?  Who was the most capable and prolific propagandist of the Protestant Reformation?  What factors contributed to the decline of German art following the death of Albrecht Dürer?  What were the qualities of mannerism, and where was it most influential? What was the most prominent feature of Mannerist art?  Who was the most flamboyant maverick of Mannerism? 


10 The Impact of the Reformation -- Protestant and Catholic
What was the main legacies of the Reformation?  How can one defend the idea that the overall impact of the Reformation in the sixteenth century was ambivalent? 


Patronato Real
Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros
Tomás de Torquemada
Gasparo Conarini
Regensburg Colloquy of 1541
Gian Matteo Gilberti
Angela Merici of Brescia (1474-1540)
Ratio Studiorum
Francis Xavier
Congregation of the Oratory
San Juan de la Cruz