|1.||Philip II, the Ruler and the Man|
| What were the major possessions of Philip II and what problems
did he face in governing them? According to De Jensen, what type
of man was Philip II? What were the "keynotes" of Philip's reign?
What was the objective of Philip's domestic rule and foreign policy?
|2.||The Government of Spain|
|By what right did Philip rule in his different territories? What
feature was common to Philip's subjects? How did Philip II achieve
considerable success in administering his far-flung empire? Which
part of Spain formed the economic and political basis of his administration?
What "system" of government did Philip use to govern? What system
was used as a liaison between the councils and the king? How
did the Cortes of Castile compare with that of the English Parliament and
the French Estates General? How did the Cortes of Castile differ
from that of Aragon?
|3.||The Spanish Overseas Empire|
|How did Spain organize and rule its overseas possessions? What
was the function of the viceroys have and had were they "kept in check?"
In what sense was Philip's administration a system of "checks and balances"?
How did Philip maintain a tight hold on the trading with the New
World and the threat of pirates?
|4.||Economics and Society|
|What was the state of Spain's economy in the sixteenth century?
Which features were negative and which were positive? Who were the
principal beneficiaries of Spanish landowning? Why did the landed
aristocracy so wealthy? What privileges did the nobles have?
Why was the condition of the Spanish peasants worse than that of the peasantry
in France? What common attitudes did the nobles and the peasants
share? Why? Why was Spanish affluence during the sixteenth
century so transitory? Why didn't Spanish industry keep pace with
its growing demands? What was the principal source of revenue during
the reign of Philip II? How did the government respond to its increasing
debt? What were the principal factors for the disastrous state of the Spanish
|5.||Spain and the Church|
|What was the most "spectacular" feature of Spanish Catholicism?
What was its most characteristic feature? Why did the Spanish so
closely identify with the Roman Catholic Church? Why is it impossible
to separate Philip's political and religious motives? Why were Philip's
relations with the papacy so often strained? What had caused the
Morisco uprising and how did it end? What brought the "Christian
enemies" to a united front against the Turks?
|6.||Foreign Involvements of Philip II|
|What was the real focus of Philip's foreign affairs after 1571?
During the first two decades of his reign, how had Philip expended his
greatest efforts? Characterize the relationships of Philip with the
Holy Roman Empire? What was his greatest concern in this area?
What led to Philip's taking action in France? What factors dictated
Philip's "neutral" policies toward Scotland? Why might Philip have
"delayed" action against Elizabethan England? How did Philip manage
to bring Portugal under his control in 1580?
|7.||William of Orange and the Revolt of the Netherlands|
|Why were the Spanish Netherlands so important to Philip's reign?
Why did Philip find the Netherlands more difficult to rule than did his
father? Over which issue would Philip make no concessions?
Why did the nobles begin to resist Spanish rule? How did William
of Orange come to lead the Dutch resistance movement against Spain?
What action of the Duke of Alba prompted merchants and commoners to join
the Calvinists in rebellion? Why did Philip recall the Duke of Alba
in 1573? What was the one concession that Don Luis de Requesens
refused to grant to the rebels?
|8.||The Birth of the Dutch Nation|
|How did Alexander Farnese manage to secure the "Union of Arras"?
Where did the Dutch turn for help against the Spanish? Why did the
king of France Henri III refuse to become involved in Dutch affairs?
What factors explain Queen Elizabeth I's policy toward the Netherlands?
What was the fate of the Northern Provinces (United Provinces) and
the Southern Provinces?
|9.||The Golden Century of Spanish Literature|
|In what areas was the literary expression of the siglo
de oro most creative and influential? What was Cervantes's greatest
literary achievement? Who are the main characters of Don Quixote
and what do they teach us? What do the literary works of sixteenth
century Spain tell us about Spanish society and sensibilities?
||What was the strongest foreign flavor in Spanish art? What blending of artistic styles during the reign of Philip II produced striking results? What Spanish city is most identified with El Greco? What was the nature of El Greco's style? How was El Greco's style received by Philip II? What was Philip II's attitude toward women as painters? What were the roots of Spanish wood sculpture and what was its principle subjects? What did it attempt to achieve?|
|"Bien es mirar a todo"|
|Castilianization of Spain|
|Don Juan of Austria|
|Battle of Lepanto (October 7, 1571)|
|Council of Troubles|
|Margaret of Parma|
|Pacification of Ghent (8 November 1576)|