Ancient Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent with comparison to Egypt
People
Geographic Location
 Achievements and/or Famous Ruler
Reason for Decline/Cessation
 Egyptians 
 3100-27 BCE 
NE Africa 750 miles downstream from 1st cataract of Nile Medical, hieroglyphic writing system, architecture and engineering, lunar calendar; number system includes, geometry Absorbed by the Roman Empire
Hyksos
1800-1580 BCE
Lower Egypt northward into Asia Minor Chariots, ruled Egypt and taught them the use of chariots and compound bows Driven from Egypt by the Egyptians and dispersed
Summerians
3500-2400 BCE
Lowest part of the Tigris - Euphrates river valley city-states, cuneiform, arch/ziggurats, wheel, algebra/time measuring system Did not unite under one government and warred with each other; conquered by the Akkadians
Akkadians
2400-2300 BCE
Entire area of Mesopotamia (Tigris - Euphrates river valley) Sargon (1st empire builder) Conquered by the Old Babylonians (Amorites)
Old Babylonians (Amorites)
1800-1600 BCE
Most of the Fertile Crescent Hammurabi's Code of Law Conquered by the Hittites
Hittites 
1600-1200 BCE
Mostly western part of Fertile Crescent and into Asia Minor  1st peoples to smelt iron and use iron weapons; system of laws Weakened by Sea Peoples and conquered by the Assyrians
Assyrians
(900-612 BCE)
Fertile Crescent and Egypt military innovations: calvary, battering ram Conquered by the Neo-Babylonians (Chaldeans)
Neo-Babylonians (Chaldeans)
612-538 BCE
Fertile Crescent and Egypt Nebuchadnezzar, city of Babylon, astronomy; brought Jews to Babylon in exile Conquered by the Achaeminid Persians
Persians (Achaeminid dynasty)
1800-331 
Central Asia with an empire that eventually reached from Greece to India and Egypt Cyrus the Great, Darius, Xerxes, Zoraster Conquered by Alexander the Great of Macedon
Phoenicians
1000-700 BCE
Asia Minor, Coastal areas of Lebanon and Palestine Sea faring, establishment of Carthage, purple dye, alaphabet Absorbed into other cultures
Lydians
700-547 BCE
Asia Minor (Anatolia) Trade; first to introduce coinage Conquered by Persians and absorbed into other cultures
Hebrews
1200-586 BCE
North of Sinai peninsula and south
of the Jordon River
Moses/Ten Commandments, Mosaic Law, ethical monotheism (law and the prophets) Conquered by the Neo Babylonians, dispersed in a great diaspora, remained a viable ethnic/religious group