Erica Annis      Sharon Coll

Rosemary Stahl



A simple rustic reed-pipe, an ancestor of  the clarinet, with 6 to 8 finger-holes. 

chalumeau sound
A shallow closed box over which are stretched wires to be struck with 2 wooden hammers held in the player's hands. 

dulcimer sound
A woodwind instrument of ancient origin formerly made of wood. From Medieval times two methods of producing sound were used: (1) blowing across a round mouth-hole (side-blown) as on the flute (2) blowing into a whistle mouthpiece (end-blown) as on the recorder. 

transverse flute sound
The Harp, which is of very ancient lineage, can be simply described as an open frame over which is stretched a graduated series of strings, which are vibrated by plucking with the fingers. 

harp sound
A fretted stringed instrument played by plucking with fingers (or with a plectrum).  The lute has a round body, like a halved pear, a flat neck, and a seperate pegbox usually bent back from the neck at an angle. The lute was usually associated with parties and romance.

lute sound
A plucked instrument of the lute family, usually with 8 strings tuned in pairs and played with a plectrum.
A woodwind instrument of ancient lineage, made without a reed. The recorder is the forerunner of the flute, but is end-blown through a whistle-mouthpiece. It has seven finger-holes in front and one thumb-hole behind, and a beak-shaped mouthpiece.

tenor recorder sound
A folk instrument, which consists of a flat wooden soundbox over which are stretched four or five melody strings, and up to thirty-seven accompanying strings. The melody strings are plucked by a plectrum on the right thumb. The accompanying strings are plucked by fingers of either hand.

psaltery (zither) sound
The hurdy-gurdy is the first stringed instrument to which the keyboard principle was applied.  The bowing action of the fiddle is replaced by a wheel cranked by a handle. When the crank is spun, the wheel turns and the gut strings vibrate.

hurdy-gurdy sound
The construction of the bagpipe allows a continuous supply of air to be maintained. By squeezing the bag with his left hand while a breath is taken, the flow of air can be kept up in both the drone pipes and chanter.  As the player blows air in, a flap opens; when he stops blowing the air pressure within the bag forces the flap shut. The chanter has seven finger holes and a thumb hole.

bagpipe sound
Bladder Pipe
The bladder pipe is a very distinctive loud instrument which has a reed which is enclosed by an animal bladder. The performer blows into the bladder through its mouthpiece, a wooden pipe. 

bladder pipe sound
Corna Muse are straight like bassanelli. They are covered below, and around the bell have several little holes, from which the sound issues. In sound they are quite similar to crumhorns, but quieter, lovelier, and very soft. 

cornamuse sound
The player's lips did not touch the reed because the reed was enclosed inside a protective cap with a slot at one end. Strongly blowing through this slot causes the reed to vibrate as it does in the bagpipe chanter. 

crumhorn sound

The most common viol has six strings . It has a long tail, fretted finger board (like the modern guitar), a flat back, sloping shoulders, and deep sides . All viols are played while seated, with the instrument held on or between the knees. 

gamba sound
The gemshorn is a medieval flute. Its shape is determined naturally since it is made from the horn of a chamois or ox. The tone has a sweet color something like a soft recorder. Its haunting delicate sound is impressive when one considers the ordinary material from which it is constructed. Shepherds probably used its gentle tones to calm animals.

gemshorn sound
The tenor of the zink family has the peculiar curved shape of a flattened letter s. Besides giving the instrument its name, this shape helps the player cover the finger holes on this longer zink. The lizard's tone is pleasing, yet rather foggy. It blends well with voices.


The tambourine is a single headed frame drum consisting of a shallow ring of wood covered on one side with parchment. It usually had small metal discs (sometimes bells) arranged singly or in pairs hanging loosely in openings in the shell. 

Finger Cymbals
Finger cymbals have been known since antiquity, perhaps from the middle of the 1st millennium BC. They are played in pairs, sometimes one in each hand,  and often in one hand, one held on the thumb and the other on either the index or middle finger. They are used to accompany dances, and sometimes held by the dancers themselves.

Drums along with other percussion instruments were probably among the earliest instruments. There is evidence that the first drums consisted of naturally hollow tree trunks covered at one or both ends with the skins of water animals, fish, or reptiles. Later, skins of hunted game and cattle were used. Drum bodies could be of wood, metal, earthenware, or bone. The head or heads could be fastened by glue, nails, or laced or lapped to the body of the drum. Sometimes there would be the hoop tensioned by rope. 

finger cymbal accompaniment sound

The rebec was definitely an instrument of the lower classes, not the court.

rebec sound
Many names have been given to the Renaissance trombone, including sackbut (literally "push-pull"). The tenor sackbut is the most useful size and it is this instrument which has evolved into the modern tenor trombone. 

sacbut sound

When well played, it blends with voices and gives depth. During the next two hundred years after its invention, it was used as a military band instrument and later evolved into the  tuba. It takes great skill and practice to get a good sound since every note depends on the player's correct embouchure and pitch accuracy. 

serpent sound
The Shofar is the ritual instrument of the ancient and modern Hebrews. The shofar was a priestly instrument in Biblical times. Two different forms of shofar were used in the Temple: one made of ibex horn, its bell ornamented with gold, was sounded at New Year; one made of ram's horn, with silver ornamentation, was sounded on fast days. 

shofar sound
The zink was used indoors and out, in serious music, dance music, town bands, rural households, at church, and court.  Six finger holes and a thumb hole are drilled in the body of the zink and it is fingered the same manner as a recorder. The zink can sound as loud as a trumpet or soft enough to blend with recorders. No other instrument came so close to the sound of the human voice. 

zink sound
References: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music
References: Music Antiqua
References: Apollo Saxes



Illustrated Rules of Chess

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Tennis is popular. It's played indoors or in a high-walled outdoor court. (The grass court comes into use in 1591.)  The ball is made of leather and stuffed with hair.  In one version, there are no rackets; you hit the ball with the palm of your hand over a tasseled rope stretched across the center of the court.